Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Planning and the Arts
A summary of the key concepts in the chapter 

A lesson on looking, Amy Herman, October 2018 (12:50)

“Are you looking closely? Visual educator Amy Herman explains how to use art to enhance your powers of perception and find connections where they may not be apparent. Learn the techniques Herman uses to train Navy SEALs, doctors and crime scene investigators to convert observable details into actionable knowledge with this insightful talk.”

Anne Parsons President and Chief Executive Officer Detroit Symphony Orchestra, October 7, 2020 (14:01)

“Detroit Symphony Orchestra’s President and CEO Anne Parsons tells One to One how the DSO has been adapting to the pandemic, from streaming its archives in the spring, to live outdoor concerts in the summer, to the current concerts on the stage of an empty Orchestra Hall, conducted by new Music Director Jader Bignamini.” 

VUCA Environments – Introduction, September 23, 2016 (7:15)

Over the past few decades, an acronym has emerged within the business community to identify the fundamental internal and external conditions that affect organizations within this complex environment. This acronym is VUCA, and it stands for volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity.

Strategic SWOT Tool for NFP Organisations, April 20, 2017 (6:16)

Moore Kingston Smith (a leading UK firm of accountants and business advisers) Partner Silvia Vitiello discusses how the strategic SWOT tool can help you develop the right strategy for your charity or not for profit organisation.

How to Perform a SWOT Analysis, October 19, 2016 (7:02)

“SWOT stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Understanding how to perform a SWOT analysis is critical to your planning process. The purpose of creating one is to formulate a synthesized view of your current state.”

PESTLE (PEST) Analysis Explained, May 26, 2016 (8:42)

“A key framework for analyzing the key features of the external business environment - PESTLE Analysis - is explained in this revision video.”

Eight Powerful Ways to Visualize an Innovative Nonprofit Business Model, June 2, 2018 (8:13) 

Bryan Alexandros offers some of the tips and techniques using the Business Model Canvas. “As of May 2018, the Nonprofit Business Model Canvas has been redesigned to include more visual markers, white space, and cues. The categories and blocks are mostly the same. Nonprofit business models and revenue streams don't have to be complicated. The techniques above help you understand how your organization creates, delivers, and captures value. This is perfect for founders, consultants, marketers, and students.”

Planning: Strategic and Long-Range Planning

How Different Cultures Understand Time, Business Insider, June 1, 2014


Our Puny Human Brains Are Terrible at Thinking About the Future - – April 13, 2017 NOTE: This article is part of Future Tense, a collaboration among Arizona State University, New America, and Slate.


Harvard Business Review (HBR) – September 19, 2016- You May Hate Planning, But You Should Do It Anyway


Prosper Strategies – Writing Vision Statements


National Council of Nonprofits – Strategic Planning 


Confirmation biases - 16 Key cognitive biases that impact creativity and the innovation process


PESTEL Analysis Examples


8+ PEST Analysis Examples & Samples in PDF


PEST (PESTLE/STEEPLE) Market Analysis Tool


The Matrix Map: A Powerful Tool for Mission-Focused Nonprofits, Steve Zimmerman and Jeanne Bell, April 1, 2014 – Nonprofit News, NonProfit Quarterly

Equity and Inclusion Plans

Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra Diversity, Equity and Inclusion Action Plan


Racial Equity Tools – Action Plan Examples


Equity in the Center – A project of Proinspire

Awake to Woke to Work: Building a Race Equity Culture – 36-page PDF

Business Plans

Business Planning for Nonprofits


“Business plans: tips for arts, culture and the creative industries” – The Guardian


Walla Walla Community College – ABC Cultural Organization Business Plan - Template


Business Model Generation


This link is to the website for the Business Model Generation book and the software version 2.0 of the Business Canvas.

Link to FAQs -


Business Model Canvas for Nonprofit Organizations [Revised text in the form aligns better with nonprofit organizations.] (Strategy firm that helps pioneers unlock new value, create new industries, and transform markets.)


Link to the fillable form of the Nonprofit Canvas Google Doc


J. Rodriguez, “To Sell or Not To Sell? An Introduction to Business Models (Innovation) for Arts and Culture Organisations”, IETM, Brussels, March 2016.



How to Write a Business Plan – Open College, Australia

Planning Software – Strategy Designer ™ - Your Strategic Plan Writer – Includes a version for nonprofits


OnStrategy - Self-guided planning to full-service strategy design – Includes planning software for Nonprofits


Envisio - Strategy and performance management for the public sector

Logic Models and Theory of Change

Effective change management: in theory and action by Nima Torabi

Includes Kurt Lewin’s 3-Step Change Management Model, Kotter’s 8-step Change Management Model. Ackerman and Anderson’s 9 stage model and the Kubler-Ross 5-stage change management model.


Theory of Change: A Practical Tool For Action, Results and Learning

Annie E. Casey Foundation


What Works - New Zealand – Logic Model


Center for Theory of Change – Multiple resources for TOC plus TOC software


DiY – Development Impact & You – Practical Tools to Trigger & Support Social Innovation


National Endowment for the Arts

Our Town – A Theory of Change and Logic Model for the NEAs’ Creative Placemaking Grants Program (2019)


ArtsBoston Audience Lab Logic Model


Santa Cruz Museum of Art & History – Business Model Case Study


Everything you (n)ever wanted to know about theory of change: an advanced workshop on theory of change applications in the arts – Link below is to a 90-minute workshop/discussion, presenters Ian David Moss and Kim Dunphy


‘Logic Models’ Prompt Hard Thinking About How to Achieve Results in Education – Wallace Foundation


In Defense of Logic Models by Ian David Moss on June 28, 2012


Connecting Students to the World of Work – Oregon Arts Commission



ArtsWave – Cincinnati, OH

Impact Measurement presentation by Tara Townsend, July 2013

Balanced Scorecard

Balanced Scorecard Institute


A Full Balanced Scorecard Example (Including 6 Templates)


Eight Real-Life Balanced Scorecard Examples

Scenario Planning

Using Scenario Planning to Surface Invisible Risks

Stanford Social Innovation Review - By Sampriti Ganguli - Summer 2017


Using Scenarios to Plan Your Museum’s COVID-19 (Coronavirus) Response – March 2020


An Event or an Era? Resource for social sector decision-making in the context of COVID-19

Scenario Planning and the Pandemic – Monitor Institute by Deloitte


Wallace Foundation - Navigating Uncertain Times: A Scenario Planning Toolkit for the Arts and Culture Sector – October 2020

Contingency Planning

MindTools Website – Contingency Planning


Prepare for the Unexpected: A Contingency Plan for Nonprofits

Crisis Planning

Nonprofit Risk Management Center


Crisis Communication Plan - Nonprofit Toolkit – Colorado Nonprofit Association


Communicating During a Crisis – Nonprofit Risk Management Center


A Brief History of Decision Making, Harvard Business Review


Problem Solving and Decision Making


The decision making tree - A simple to way to visualize a decision


Advanced Management Science - Decision Tree Analysis

Examples of Strategic Plans

Here is a mix of plans by cultural organizations in the visual and performing arts plus a city and a service organization. Use the questions posed at the end of chapter 4 (Discussion Questions and Activities Question #5) to assess the plans listed below. (Click on the plan title to link to the PDF)


Americans for the Arts -  Designing Our Destiny

Cleveland Museum of Art Strategic Plan

Denver’s Cultural Plan – Imagine 2020

Houston Symphony – Vision 2025 – A Strategic Plan for Transformational Change

Opera Theatre of St. Louis – Strategic Plan FY15-FY20

Philadelphia Museum Strategic Plan 2018

Royal Manitoba Theatre Centre – 2017-2021 Plan

Seattle Shakespeare Company Strategic Plan

Ensemble Español Spanish Dance Theater Impact

Tate Vision 2020-25 – Scroll down the page for the link to the PDF

Ontario Arts Council Strategic Plan


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