Chapter 5

Chapter 5 - Organizing: Organization Design and Culture
A summary of the key concepts in the chapter 


In order to better understand organizing, it is important to consider your own perspective on the concept. When considering organizing at the personal and organizational level, we can't overlook how our personality affects how organizations are structured and how organizational cultures evolve. This short video introduces the Big 5 Personality Traits which can be helpful when looking at organizing and organizations at the macro level. Chapter 7 - Leading in the Arts goes into more detail the personality.

The Big 5 Personality Traits, OCEAN, April 5, 2021 (13:04) “In this video, we'll begin our discussion of personality by reviewing one of the most widely-used and best approaches to categorizing and conceptualizing people's personalities: the Big 5 (OCEAN). After reviewing the Big 5 Personality Traits, we'll touch on how personality changes over the lifespan as well as cultural differences in personality.”


Voices of Baruch: A Conversation with Provost Linda Essig on Arts, January 18, 2022 (4:07) A brief conversation with Linda Essig about her new book Creative Infrastructures: Art, Money and Entrepreneurial Action


Overview of Business Organizations - 2021 (10:03)

This short video created by LawShelf covers different elements of sole proprietorships, partnerships, LLCs, and corporations.

For more detailed information from LawShelf about various types of businesses, go to this link:

Introduction to Nonprofit Organizations: Module 1 of 5, July 2021, (19:50)

Presented by LawShelf – There are 5 videos in this series focused on nonprofits. The first provides an overview of nonprofit organizations, which is the typical corporate structure of most arts and culture organizations.

Types of Organizational Structures, January 14, 2019 (4:00) “Grouping employees and tasks in an organization has a significant impact on organizational behavior and employees. An organizational structure defines how activities such as task allocation, coordination and supervision are directed toward the achievement of organizational aims.”

Organizational Design and Structure, November 17, 2019 (17:35) A more detailed summary of the basic concepts of organizational design “Designing and redesigning the organization in response to internal and external changes is a key managerial function. Organizational design is the process of selecting and managing aspects of organizational structure and culture to enable the organization to achieve its goals. One of the most important outcomes of organizational design is organizational structure, or the formal system of task, power, and reporting relationships.”

Organizational Structure: Mintzberg, July 25, 2018 (7:20) Provides a more detailed examination of Mintzberg’s ideas on organizational design summarized by the Micro Learning Institute. See Box 5.2 in Management and the Arts 6e for another link to a video on Mintzberg’s organizational scheme.


vimeo video Creating Org Charts in Excel: In addition to a short how-to video on creating and org chart, there are various templates may be downloaded at this site. (2:42)

How to Create an Organizational Chart Linked to Data in Excel, February 20, 2020 (8:52) This video offers a more useful approach to creating org charts in Excel using a free Visio add-on that allows you to have your org chart easily updateable. The standard charts in Excel are static and require work to update. The video also shows you to create flow charts.  

vimeo video Creating an Org Chart in PowerPoint: In addition to a short how-to video on creating an org chart, there are various templates that may be downloaded at this site. (2:40)

Creating Org Charts in Visio 2016: November 16, 2017 (14:39) Part one of three on using Visio 2016. Visio is not part of the Office 365 subscription. It can be purchased for around $280 or by a monthly subscription. You can try it for 30 days for free.

Creating Org Charts in Visio 2019, using the latest edition of the software, April 2021 (20:33).

How to use Microsoft Visio, November 4, 2020 (14:50) “In this step-by-step tutorial, learn how to get and use Microsoft Visio. Visio is a diagramming app that you can use to create flow charts, network diagrams, floor plans, and much more.”

How to Build an Org Chart in Google Sheets – (No audio, but still helpful), October 30, 2019 (2:42)


What Is Culture? Organizational Culture, May 10, 2017 (10:54) “Organizational culture from Edgar Schein's 1991 article, "What is Culture?" His model of organizational culture looks at, among other things, levels of culture including artifacts, values, and underlying assumptions.”


Frederic Laloux on Soulful Organisations, February 24, 2015 (7:06) “The way we manage organisations seems increasingly out of date. Survey after survey shows that the vast majority of employees are disengaged at work, while organisational leaders complain that their organisations are too slow, siloed, and bureaucratic for today's world. In this excerpt from the event, Frederic Laloux discusses the historical evolution of management thinking, and shares how extraordinary pioneering organisations in very different sectors are already operating from the next stage of management.”

Free Bonus Content by Frederic Laloux Dig in much deeper at this topic by viewing a series of videos Laloux made about topics related to his book. There is no paywall. There are over 20 hours of content to peruse.

Holacracy: A Radical New Approach to Management, Brian Robertson, July 2, 2015 (18:20) TEDx. “In his engaging talk, Brian Robertson explains Holacracy, a complete system for structuring a company without a management hierarchy, yet with clear accountability, authority and agility.”


Kurt Lewin (1890-1947) The “father of social psychology,” April 11, 2018 (6:13) Field Theory and Action Research. Note: The formula shown at 1:51 in the presentation should be expressed as B = f(P, E), Behavior is a function of the Person and their Environment

John Kotter’s 8 Step Change Model Presentation, August 30, 2017 (11:42) A short summary of each of the steps needed to effect organizational change.

Options to Explore Your Personality and Organizing

The Personality Lab – A range of tests are available at

Five-Factor Model Test,  

Psychology Today – Organizational Skills Test (Personal Life Version)[Note: For a fee, you can access the detailed test results online.]  

The Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory – Online quiz (free)  

How to Be More Organized – (14-minute read)

Business and Corporate Structures

U.S. Small Business Administration Learning Center Dashboard - Videos and links to starting up a business  

National Council of Nonprofits “How to Start a Nonprofit” - Resources and guidance about starting a nonprofit organization  

National Assembly of State Arts Agencies - This resource can help you connect with state and local arts agencies and their resources for starting and operating an arts organization  

U.S. Internal Revenue Service  

Differences between NGOs and NPOs (2017)


Network for Teaching Entrepreneurship (NFTE)“Network for Teaching Entrepreneurship is a global educational nonprofit focused on bringing the power of entrepreneurship to youth in low-income communities. NFTE’s rigorous programs are taught by a highly trained Teacher Corps, and NFTE students are supported by a diverse Volunteer Corps drawn from the local community, including business leaders and entrepreneurs. Since its founding more than 30 years ago, NFTE has trained thousands of teachers and educated more than a million young people worldwide.”  

American Arts Incubator  

Arts Business Incubator – New York Foundation for the Arts   

Americans for the Arts – ArtsU This information hub contains numerous training resources for artists and managers  

Arizona State University: Herberger Institute Resources for Community Members The institute brings design and the arts into the community and invites community members to experience the arts through a variety of programs, workshops, classes, and events.  

European Education and Culture Executive Agency Creative EuropeA resource center for applying for grants. The Pilot Projects and Preparatory Actions (PPPAs) grants are for “experimental initiatives designed to test the feasibility of new actions and prepare new programmes.”  

European Creative Hubs NetworkThe European Creative Hubs Network is a peer-led network with a mission to enhance the creative, economic, and social impact of hubs around Europe and neighboring countries. As focal points for creative professionals and businesses, hubs offer the most effective way to support the growth and development of cultural and creative industries.  

“Experiments with Holacracy: Why we stopped doing it, and what we learned along the way” by Michiel van Gerven, April 2019“My colleague Minke’s recent article ‘Getting started as an employee experience chief’ triggered some questions about why we at Organize Agile abandoned Holacracy. It’s not an easy question to answer and while I have my own thoughts on the subject I also asked my coworkers to offer their opinions. This article will offer some insights from our journey, what Holacracy did (and didn’t do) for us, and some recommendations should you want to start your own Holacracy experiment.”

Organize AgileThis company is in Utrecht and has developed multiple approaches to organizational change.

Other Org Chart Software (Offers free version or a fee-based system) (Limited free version or a personal monthly fee-based plan) (Capterra link to dozens of org chart products)

Organizational Culture and Change

Pressbooks – Open Source textbooks, Organizational Behavior, Chapter 12.4 Creating and Maintaining Organizational Culture by Leah Sheppard - licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.“How Are Cultures Created?Where do cultures come from? Understanding this question is important so that you know how they can be changed.”  

This link to the Management Study Guide website focuses on the “Edgar Schein Model of Organization Culture.” In 15 short chapters, it will give you a more detailed explanation of Schein’s theory of organizational culture.  

Create REAL Workplace Culture Change With a Systemic Approach to Equity, Diversity & Inclusion – Center for Creative Leadership (October 2021). The Center’s mission statement is “We believe that leadership is the critical lever for igniting positive, transformative, and sustainable change, at a time when the world requires new thinking and vision to solve both local and global challenges.”  

The Possibility Spectrum: Increasing Diversity & Inclusion in Arts OrganizationsDr. M. Crystal Yingling, Intiman Theatre, USA (2020)“Data and analysis from five years of case studies on Intiman Theatre’s programming reveal practical actions organizations can take to improve diversity and increase inclusion. Through research the author outlines a 12-step plan in three phases, awaken, broaden, and commit, enabling organizations to access their Possibility Spectrum.” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CULTURAL MANAGEMENT & POLICY, Vol. 10, Issue 1, 2020, ISSN 2663-5771