Chapter 7

Chapter 7 - Leading in the Arts
A summary of the key concepts in the chapter 

Arts Leadership
“Are there advantages in having professionally-trained musicians in administrative roles?”
 October 2020 (7:27) – Adaptistration “Shop Talk” video. “Our guests, Jeff Vom Saal and Zak Vassar, field a fascinating question from one of Adaptistration's readers: ‘What are some of the advantages of having professionally trained musicians in administrative roles, compared to having those roles filled with individuals with training in business, marketing, or other non-music fields?’”
Leadership Theories and Practices
Here are several videos about the topics covered in Chapter 7.
Ten Leadership Theories in Five Minutes, August 2013 (5:08)
This short video covers many of the leadership theories discussed in this chapter
McGregor X & Y Theory of Management: Simplest Explanation Ever, June 2020 (7:17)
“McGregor's Theory of Management is one of the fundamental motivational theories of management which ties human psychology with management. We look at theory x and theory y and simplify the concept for you.”
Fielder’s Contingency Theory of Leadership, April 2021 (10:46)
“This video explains Fiedler's Contingency Theory and how to use the situational graph that is the core of Fiedler's Contingency Model.”
The Vroom-Yetton Model of Leadership, January 2021 (16:23) “Knox College Psychology Professor Frank McAndrew explains the Vroom-Yetton Model of Leadership (also known as the "Leader-Participation Model") for his online class in organizational behavior.”
House and Mitchell’s Path-Goal Leadership Theory
“This video explains the Path-Goal theory. It also covers the 4 leadership styles within this theory and model.”
Hershey, Blanchard, and Johnston’s Situational Leadership Model
Situational Leadership Explained, November 2018 (10:01)
Other Leadership Theories and Approaches: LMX Theory, Authentic and Servant Leadership
Theory into Practice | LMX Leadership, August 2020 (19:00)
Note – the LMX discussion ends at around 15 minutes into the video “Leading a student group? Thinking about how to interact with your subordinates? Take a listen and learn the basics of leadership theory!”
Authentic Leadership Theory, September 2020 (5:12)
“Authentic leadership is a new approach to leadership in which leaders are genuine, self-aware, transparent, build honest relationships, and work on an ethical foundation. Authenticity is one of the core values of leadership.”
What is Servant Leadership? Project Leadership at its Best, March 2020 (13:35)
“Servant leader. That sounds pretty much like a contradiction in terms, but it is a profoundly important idea. Indeed, I’d argue that servant leadership is the single most valuable approach to leadership. And it’s an approach that no leader can afford to ignore.”
Transactional, Transformative, and Adaptive Leadership Approaches
Transactional vs. Transformational Leadership Definition, Jun 30, 2016, (9:59) "Different managers employ distinctly different management styles, ranging from relatively hands-off, facilitative styles to autocratic, micromanaging styles. Managers can also employ different motivational strategies and techniques to boost employee performance or accomplish internal change. Transformational and transactional leadership are polar opposites when it comes to the underlying theories of management and motivation. Understanding the difference between transformational and transactional leadership is crucial for anyone pursuing a career in management."
What is Transformational Leadership? Beyond Day-to-Day Leadership, July 2017 (4:41)
“Transformational Leadership can be set against the alternative - transactional leadership. The distinction was drawn by James McGregor Burns and clarified by Bernard Bass.”
Adaptive Leadership explained in 4 minutes, March 2017 (4:25)
“The Adaptive Leadership framework's key concepts created by Ron Heifetz and Marty Linsky at the Harvard Kennedy School are explained here in 4 minutes and 26 seconds with graphics” by Adriano Pianesi.
Adaptive Leadership: framework for change management! Learn how to become an adaptive leader today! October 2020 (18:26)
A more in-depth summary of Adaptive Leadership “The Adaptive Leadership frameworks involve the three steps of change handling as well as six key principles you should use to excel at change management. In this video, you will learn about the concept of Adaptive Leadership, how to successfully deploy it, the strengths and weaknesses of adaptive leadership and how to become an effective adaptive leader.”
Adaptive Leadership in 12 minutes October 2020 (18:26)
- Ron Heifetz, December 2021 (12:28) One of the founders of adaptive leadership provides perspective and insights on the approach
Inclusive Leadership – What is it and Why Inclusion in Leadership is so Important?! 
Presented by Chris Igwe, August 2021 (12:33)
“Inclusion leadership means being able to do your best work. Inclusive leaders provide shared vision and clarity to guide others. They set their people up for success and create avenues for contributing to the larger outcome. Inclusive leadership also makes space for people to find their own meaning and purpose.”
The Cost of Code Switching, August 2017 (10:43)
“Taught from a young age to culturally code switch, Chandra Arthur discusses how learning default conformity in different settings now creates access and opportunity in her adult life as an underrepresented minority (URM) in tech.”
So, You Want to Work in Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI / D&I)? Here's What You Should Know! By Adriele Parker, April 2021 (10:24)
• First, what do the words diversity, equity, and inclusion even mean?
 • What does DEI work entail?
• DEI roles & pathways to entering or transitioning into the DEI
• Skills & competencies needed to effectively work in DEI
• 7 core competencies for DEI practitioners as identified by The Conference Board (
• The importance of self-awareness & self-care for DEI practitioners #protectyourenergy
• What education and certificates do I need to work in DEI?
3 ways to be a better ally in the workplace, by Melinda Briana Epler, TED Salon: Brightline Initiative, June 2018 (9:28)
“We're taught to believe that hard work and dedication will lead to success, but that's not always the case. Gender, race, ethnicity, religion, disability, sexual orientation are among the many factors that affect our chances, says writer and advocate Melinda Briana Epler, and it's up to each of us to be allies for those who face discrimination. In this actionable talk, she shares three ways to support people who are underrepresented in the workplace.”
Personality & Trait Testing Resources
Please note the results of these various types and trait tools are subject to confirmation bias. Take, for example, the extravert/introvert scale. This trait should (as others) be thought of as more of a continuum rather than one or the other. Context matters. Social psychology research on personality is ongoing and is a much more reliable resource than pop psychology websites or various social media platforms.

The Personality Lab – A range of tests are available at
[There is even a test you can take if you are a Harry Potter fan, hence my warning about confirmation bias.]

The Big Five-Factor Model Test  

Personality Development – Management Study Guide
“ is an educational portal launched in 2008 with the vision of providing students and corporate workforces worldwide with access to rich, easy to understand, frequently updated instruction on many management-related topics.”

The Big Five

“The big five versus the big four: the relationship between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and NEO-PI five-factor model of personality” by Adrian Furnham – Journal Article Personality and Individual Differences - Volume 21, Issue 2, August 1996, Pages 303-307
NOTE: This article is behind a paywall. However, your library may allow you to access this article for free.

Forget The Myers-Briggs
, Use the Big Five (2019)
This article provides is critical of the MBTI test and refers to it as “little more than an elaborate Chinese fortune cookie.” The website offers a very accessible overview of the Big Five Factor Model.

HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised
, an instrument that assesses the six major dimensions of personality: Honesty-Humility. Emotionality. eXtraversion. Agreeableness (versus Anger). This link takes you directly to the questionnaire website. If you want to read more about the test first, look at the next link for an open-access journal article about the HEXACO Inventory.

A Study of The Psychometric Properties and The Standardization of HEXACO Personality Inventory
, by Hassan Bashiria, Usha Barahmand, Z. Saeed Akabric, G. Hossein Ghamarid, and Asghar Vusugie, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 30, 2011, Pages 1173-1176
Bias and Leading
Harvard University Project Implicit®
There are 15 different Implicit Association Tests (IAT) available on the website. You can take the various tests by registering as a guest if you do not want to set up an account.

Interventions designed to reduce implicit prejudices and implicit stereotypes in real world contexts: a systematic review, by Chloë FitzGerald, Angela Martin, Delphine Berner & Samia Hurst, BMC Psychology, volume 7, Article number: 29 (2019)
This journal article is a meta review of 30 different sources about testing for biases. It found some tests were more effective than others. The authors noted “Caution is thus advised when it comes to programs aiming at reducing biases. This does not weaken the case for implementing widespread structural and institutional changes that are multiply justified.”

Retraining the biased brain - Is it possible to break people of unconscious prejudice? One researcher’s work suggests it is. By Bridget Murray Law, American Psychological Association, October 2011, Vol 42, No. 9, Print version: page 42. This is a short article on bias training.

Learn the Function of Code Switching as a Linguistic Term by Richard Nordquist, 2019
This is a quick overview of the “practice of moving back and forth between two languages or between two dialects or registers of the same language at one time.”
Gender and Inclusivity
Women Can’t Win - Despite Making Educational Gains and Pursuing High-Wage Majors, Women Still Earn Less than Men, Georgetown University, 2018

What’s Really Holding Women Back? Harvard Business Review, March-April 2020

Research: We Are Way Harder on Female Leaders Who Make Bad Calls, Harvard Business Review, April 2016

Barriers and Bias: The Status of Women in Leadership, AAUW, 2016

How Women of Color Get to Senior Management, Harvard Business Review – August 2018

Learn the Function of Code Switching as a Linguistic Term

The Exhausting Work of LGBTQ Code-Switching (2019)

Why Inclusive Leaders Are Good for Organizations, and How to Become One, Harvard Business Review, March 2019.

An Employer’s Guide to Using Gender-Inclusive Language in the Workplace (2020)

Top 50 Diversity, Inclusion & Belonging Articles of 2019, Dec. 18, 2019

Leadership Styles of Ethnic Minority Leaders, by Innocent F. Okozi, MA, Kimberly L. Smith, MA, Le Ondra Clark Harvey, PhD, and Regina M. Sherman, MS, American Psychological Association, August 2009.
 “Leadership style is an area that has received modest attention in the psychology literature. Most studies examine leadership style within organizations. Less attention, however, has been paid to the examination of difference in leadership style in regards to ethnicity or race. The few studies that do examine ethnic or racial differences are limited in their description of the differences in leadership style between ethnic minority leaders versus leaders from the dominant White culture (Eagly & Johnson, 1990). Here, we will review the existing literature to help answer the question: Is there a difference in the leadership style between ethnic minority individuals versus White individuals?”
Bad Leaders
“Corporate Psychopathy: Talking the Walk” by Paul Babiak, Ph.D., Craig S. Neumann, Ph.D., and Robert D. Hare, Ph.D. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, Vol. w 28: 174–193 (2010).
‘‘Not all psychopaths are in prison. Some are in the Boardroom.’’ Hare, 2002 “In this study, we had a unique opportunity to examine psychopathy and its correlates in a sample of 203 corporate professionals selected by their companies to participate in management development programs. The correlates included demographic and status variables, as well as in-house 3608 assessments and performance ratings.”

“4 Reasons Why We Elect Narcissists and Sociopaths” by Bill Eddy, Psychology Today, 2019
“Over the past year and a half, I have been researching and writing a book titled Why We Elect Narcissists and Sociopaths—And How We Can Stop! In a nutshell, here are four of the reasons why this occurs and will continue at all levels of society (from workgroups to mayors to heads of state) around the world until people realize the personality patterns they are voting for.”

“The Seven Habits of Sociopathic Managers” by Dan Geddes, 2019
“While old school corporate management values such as efficiency and vision still have their place, studies in several countries have shown that sociopaths and psychopaths are now disproportionately represented in senior management, especially among CEOs.”
“When and How to Respond to Microaggressions” by Ella F. Washington, Alison Hall Birch, and Laura Morgan Roberts, Harvard Business Review, July 03, 2020

Building Active Listening Skills

Understanding Communication and the Communication Process – MSG Study Guide
28 short chapters on various topics covering communication theories, models and practices.
Chapter 7 Case Study
Leading and Managing Challenges
NOTE: There are often multiple ways to respond to a case study, although some approaches may be better than others. Feel free to explore perspectives and points of view as you ponder how you might resolve these situations. Ambiguities and missing facts in the case study are intentional. We seldom have the luxury of having all the facts at our disposal when trying to make decisions.
What is Wrong with Sally?
Casey, the Executive Director of the Red Rocks Art Museum, is having some problems with Sally, one of her direct reports. Sally has been the Development Director for over two years, and until recently, she had been doing a great job. Sally was often the first in the office, the last to leave, and was praised for her detailed donor contact and cultivation reports. She also regularly received praise from the Marketing and PR staff for her collaborative skills, and she volunteered several times to help the part-time grant writer with some new foundation leads. Donors have been providing glowing reports about Sally and enjoy talking with her. In summary, she has been doing outstanding work.

However, in the last month or so, Casey noticed Sally didn’t seem to be at the top of her game. For example, this past week, Casey noticed Sally was late to the staff meeting, had not been at her desk when Casey came into the office in the morning, and had been leaving work early. Sally has seemed distracted and unfocused compared to her usual self. Others on the staff have been expressing concerns about Sally too.

Casey just got off the phone with Mark, the Finance Manager, who gave her an earful about how Sally tried to push through a gift from a member without the proper account authorization information. Casey asked Mark what Sally had to say about this and said Sally never replied to his emails or phone calls. That reminded Casey of an email she received yesterday from the Audience Services Director complaining that two contact reports Sally uploaded were missing some essential information on the new members.

Casey looked up from her desk and noticed Sally coming into the office. She appeared to be in a hurry, was glancing around to check who else was there and then hurried off to her cubicle. Casey checked the time, and it was only 3:45 pm. Casey thought Sally would be making visits to several donors this afternoon, and she wasn’t expected back in the office until around 6 pm. Casey decided maybe this was a good time to have a quick chat with Sally about how her day was going.

She headed over to Sally’s cubicle and asked if “Everything was OK? I didn’t expect you back until later.” Sally seemed startled and said, “Huh, why is there something wrong? Did I miss a meeting? Sorry, it has been a crazy day.” She turned away from Casey and seemed to be trying to find a piece of paper on her desk. Casey asked, “How did your donor meetings go this afternoon?” Sally said, “Umm, yes, I met with everyone and finished early, so I came back to pick up a file I forgot.” Casey noticed she didn’t answer her question, so she pressed her for a brief status report on the meetings. Sally said, “Look, I have another appointment downtown. Can I email you an update tonight?”

Casey agreed that was fine and asked how the Robertsons were (two donors Sally was supposed to be meeting with today)? Sally gave Casey a blank stare for a beat and said, “Oh sure, yes, they are doing fine.” Casey then asked, “Are they still committed to their additional gift to the education program?” There was an awkward silence, then Sally said, “Well, yes, as far as I know. I’ll update my reports tonight and email a quick recap of today’s meetings. Sorry to cut our chat short. I have to leave now. I have an appointment downtown.” She said goodbye, picked up her stuff and headed out the door. Casey realized she forgot to ask what the appointment Sally had to rush off to was about.

There was no email from Sally about the donor meetings. In the morning, Casey checked the donor reports on the shared drive, which had not been updated for ten days. When Sally came into the office late, around 9:45 am, Casey stopped by her desk and said, “It looks like you are running late this morning. Is everything OK?” Sally looked up and smiled and said, “Nothing is wrong. Not to worry, honest, it’s all fine. I had an early appointment that ran a little late, that’s all.”

Casey is a little taken aback by how on top of it and calm Sally seemed this morning. “This is more like the Sally I know,” she thought. Casey said, “OK, I am concerned about you, that’s all, and I just want to make sure you’re all right.” Sally assured Casey that she had no reason to be concerned. Casey decided not to push her, and she let her know “her door was always open.” Casey’s schedule for the rest of the week was jamb-packed, and she had other fires to put out, so Sally was moved to the back burner.

On Tuesday of the following week, complaints around the office about Sally were resurfacing. She tried to “push through” three more new donor gifts that were missing essential information. Casey also had three calls yesterday from different board members on the Fundraising Committee complaining that Sally has not been showing up for appointments with donors. A new potential donor had reached out to a board member to tell him she was upset about Sally not showing up for a meeting they had scheduled last Friday. And to top it off, another long-time patron called this morning and expressed her concern about Sally’s wellbeing and told Casey, “It is not like Sally to miss meetings. She never showed up for our lunch meeting last Wednesday, and I was concerned that she was OK and not in a car accident or something. She called me last Friday to apologize for missing our meeting, and we rescheduled for this week.”

Casey moved Sally back to her front burner, and she set aside some time to see if she could figure out what was going on. Since Sally’s job is all about raising money and engaging donors, Casey pulled up a few reports on giving to the museum over the last month. After reviewing the donation amounts, she realized Sally no longer met her fundraising targets. Casey quickly checked Sally’s numbers last year, and she saw her stats were off by 40% in the last three months.

Casey had taken Sally’s word that she was OK, and she thought Sally would get back in sync again. However, with the continued complaints and errors in Sally’s reports and decline in donations, Casey had to admit to herself that Sally was not fine, and all was not good. Things are, in fact, worse, much worse than Casey thought. Casey decided it was time to have a more serious conversation with Sally and try to understand what was wrong.

Assuming you were Casey, what would you do to help Sally get back to being a productive member of the team at the museum? (Source: Adapted and expanded from a case study in Management of Organizational Behavior, 9th ed., Hersey, Blanchard, Johnson, 2008, Prentice-Hall, NJ.)

Case Study Postmortem

When you think about this case study, it is crucial to expand your view of the issues it raises by zooming out a bit. Since this case study is focused on leading and managing someone, it allows you to use many of the topics covered in chapter 7. Here are a few things to consider.

  • Why are people coming to Casey with their issues about Sally’s job performance rather than talking directly to Sally?
  • If Sally’s job performance has been declining over the last month, why hasn’t Casey been more interested in what’s going on with Sally?
  • The case study provides some evidence of Sally’s management style and job performance over the last two years. It also indicates she had been working an intense schedule until about a month ago. What might be some of the reasons her job performance had declined?
  • How would you characterize Casey’s management and leadership style and her job performance as Sally’s supervisor based on her interactions with Sally?
  • What do you think Casey can do to help Sally get back to being her old self? There seems to be something going on in Sally’s life that impacts her work performance. What are some of the limits to what Casey can do to remedy this situation?
  • What alternatives would you explore rather than firing Sally for her declining job performance?