6e UPDATE #4 – SUMMER 2023


Thank you for visiting the 6e Updates page. The fourth update includes 28 pages of new resources for Management and the Arts. There have been several significant changes in the economic, political, social, and cultural environments impacting arts organizations since the 6th edition was published in June 2022. I hope students, faculty, and practitioners will find these additional reports, news and journal articles, and information on recently published arts management-related books timely and of value.


I have gone through the Learning Resources and Learning Links for Chapters 1 to 12 and have checked that all the links are working and updated. If you come across any broken links, please email me, and I’ll make the necessary fixes. Send your report to mgtandthearts@gmail.com

Thank you. 

Bill Byrnes



  1. In the Acknowledgments – Page xxvi, Joshua Stavros’s name was misspelled.
  2. Chapter 9 – Page 378, see the Balance Sheet header, and please note the abbreviations should be NA for Net Assets, not NE.


Chapter 1 – Arts Management Overview

Creative Industries Resources

Here are two links to resources related to the topics of “How Art Works” and the “Creative Industries” covered on pages 4 to 11 in Chapter 1.

Compendium of Cultural Policies & Trends

Mission: The Compendium of Cultural Policies & Trends seeks to generate and review policy standards in areas of concern to governments and society by providing knowledge, statistics, comparisons, resources, thematic sections and more. The country profiles contain information on the historical development, present structure, financial aspects, specific sectors and ongoing debates in national cultural policies.

For More Information:


NOAH - National Organization for Arts in Health

As the National Organization for Arts in Health, NOAH provides transformational leadership to bring the field of arts in health together and to move the field forward. Our focus is on the future of arts, health, and well-being; and creating tangible impact from our goals and initiatives.



New Books on Arts Management

Pages 20 and 21 included a list of additional books on a range of topics on arts management. Here are three recently published books that I think you’ll find of value.

Transforming Museum Management: Evidence-Based Change Through Open Systems Theory, Yuha Jung, Routledge, 2022


Museums must change to illuminate the histories, cultures, and social issues that matter to their local population. Based on a unique longitudinal ethnographic study, Transforming Museum Management illustrates how a traditional art museum attempted to transform into a more inclusive and community-based institution.

Using open systems theory and the Buddhist concept of mutual causality, it examines the museum’s internal management structure and culture, programs and exhibitions, and mental models of museum workers. In providing both theoretical and practical foundations to transform management structures, this accessible volume will benefit stakeholders by proposing a new culture and structure to arts institutions to change practice to be more relevant, diverse, and inclusive.

This book will be an invaluable resource for researchers and advanced students of museum studies, cultural management, arts administration, non-profit management, and organizational studies.

Link to order the book: https://www.routledge.com/Transforming-Museum-Management-Evidence-Based-Change-through-Open-Systems/Jung/p/book/9781032030098


Orchestra Management Handbook: Building Relationships in Turbulent Times, Travis Newton, Oxford University Press, 2022


Those who choose to make the orchestra enterprise their life's work face a host of challenges that have beset orchestra managers since the very beginning of the art form, alongside new challenges that continue to arise in the twenty-first century. Written for those who are contemplating jumping into the orchestra management realm, the Orchestra Management Handbook will provide a significant head-start for people entering this complicated, exciting, and challenging line of work. Whether short-term, long-term, internal, external or existential, an intentional approach to building, maintaining, and sustaining relationships must be at the core of the orchestra manager's daily routine.

Each chapter of this handbook provides practical strategies, tools, and a variety of resources to workers in the orchestra management field, always with an emphasis on building relationships. Throughout the book, author and experienced orchestra manager, violinist, and professor Travis Newton regularly features illustrative case studies highlighting innovative practices being undertaken at orchestras across the country, providing the reader an opportunity to learn from the experiences of others. Additionally, each chapter concludes with a series of discussion questions to ponder, teasing out some of the key concepts.

Link to order the book - https://global.oup.com/academic/product/orchestra-management-handbook-9780197550687?cc=us&lang=en&


Performing Arts Management: A Handbook of Professional Practices, 2nd ed.  Tobie S. Stein, Jessica Rae Bathurst, Renee Lasher, Donna Walker-Kuhn, Allworth Press, 2022


Do you know what it takes to manage a performing arts organization today? In this revised second edition of the comprehensive guide, more than 100 managers of top nonprofit and commercial venues share their winning strategies.

From theater to classical music, from opera to dance, every type of organization is included, with information on how each one is structured, key managerial figures, its best-practices for financial management, how it handles labor relations, and more.

Link to order the book - https://www.skyhorsepublishing.com/allworth-press/9781621536949/performing-arts-management-second-edition/


Chapter 2 - Arts Managers and the Practice of Arts Management

Here are two more updates from the Dance Data Project (DDP) and a link to a scholarly paper on the topic of management theory and practice.


Dance Data Project (DDP) – Global Leadership Report

In the previous updates (#2 and #3), I shared reports from the Dance Data Project. Chapter 2, pages 44-49, includes a section on the arts manager profile. This report will help provide some additional context for you on the field of dance management. DDP’s latest survey of 148 dance companies from around the world included valuable insights on artistic directors, executive Directors, and other leadership positions. Here’s a quick overview of their findings. There is a link below to the free report.

Key Findings:

1. Of 198 artistic directors of classically based companies globally, 58 (29%) are women while 140 (71%) are men. In the 2021 Report, 59 of 179 (33%) artistic directors were women - a 4% decline in artistic leadership opportunities for women.

2. Globally, women represent 71% of heads of schools, 52% of executive directors/CEOs, and 57% of assistant/associate directors.

3. Of the Largest 30 companies, each with more than 75 dancers, 8 are led by female artistic directors (27%) and 22 are led by male artistic directors (73%), emphasizing the lack of female artistic leadership at large-scale, influential companies around the world.

Link to report:



The Largest U.S. Contemporary & Modern Dance Companies (DDP)

Just in time for this update of the sixth edition, the research team at the Dance Data Project published a new report profiling contemporary and modern dance companies in the USA. There are many familiar names among the 127 listed, including Alvin Ailey, Bill T. Jones, Doug Varone and Dancers, Hubbard Street Dance Chicago, and Pilobolus,

Key findings include:

The 2021 Largest 50 U.S. Contemporary and Modern Dance Companies Report showcased the gender distribution of artistic directors and company founders at the Largest 50 U.S. contemporary and modern dance companies. Of the 52 artistic directors, 26 were women (50%), and 26 were men (50%). Of the 65 company founders, 35 were women (54%), and 30 were men (46%).

The 2023 report showcases a major increase in female-led and female-founded companies as the number of companies examined has expanded 2.5 times. Of the 137 current artistic directors, 87 are women (63.5%), 48 are men (35%), and 2 are gender expansive (1.5%). Similarly, of the 153 company founders, 93 are women (60.8%), 58 are men (37.9%), and 2 are gender expansive (1.3%).

Clearly, the contemporary and modern dance world offers far more leadership opportunities for women than classical dance. However, as noted in the first report, the budget size is orders of magnitude smaller.



Management Theory - Journal Article

Here’s an open-source scholarly paper about management theory that should be of value to those in graduate programs in arts and culture management.

Calibrating for Progress: What are the Instrumental Functions of Theory in Management Research? by Gorgi Krlev,

Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 60, #4, June 2023


While economics has largely moved ‘beyond theory’, in management research the ‘theory always’ imperative is still held high. This imperative has come under attack lately with scholars saying we have too much theory that explains too little, or that insisting on theoretical contributions in every article hampers our ability to address timely issues. I argue that there is unease with the practice of theorizing in management and organization because we fail to demonstrate what theory does (or cannot do) for advancing knowledge and under what conditions. In this article, I seek to show when and how management theory is more useful and when less useful for moving research fields forward. Drawing on a position about progress that is rooted in a combination of Popper's critical rationalism and social criticism, I unearth four instrumental functions of theory and three areas of limitation. I suggest that scholars should be clearer about which of these functions their theorizing serves or use the framework to justify why, instead of crafting theory, they focus on applying theory, on empirical analysis, or on method. The article provides guidance to authors, reviewers, and editors. It also offers suggestions for the strategic positioning and publishing policies of journals.

Link to paper: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/joms.12904


Chapter 3 – Adaptive Arts Organizations

Developing your skill as an arts manager assessing changing external environments (e.g., economic, political, social, technological, etc.) is an important learning outcome for Chapter 3. There have been a great many factors influencing these environments since the 6th edition was published in June 2022. For example, changes in the economic, political, social, and cultural environments have presented numerous opportunities and challenges to artists and arts organizations. The impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a topic artists and arts managers will also need to carefully study since it will very likely impact their organizations.

TrendsWatch 2023 and the article from the International Journal of Cultural Policy provide insights and perspectives about two very different topics affecting arts organizations: museums and cultural diplomacy. These resources can be used in conjunction with Changing Environments, pages 71 to 90.

But first, the topic of the culture wars in the arts was briefly discussed in the section on Cultural and Social Environments, pages 83-85. However, the culture wars have spread to the educational, economic, and political environments over the last year. If you are interested in gaining more knowledge about the topic of Critical Race Theory (CRT), which was not covered in the 6th edition, I recommend you read this book by Victor Ray to help clear up much of the misinformation and outright distortions on the topic. It’s available wherever books are sold and online.


On Critical Race Theory – Why It Matters & Why You Should Care by Victor Ray, Random House, New York, NY, 2022, 161 pages.

From renowned scholar Dr. Victor Ray, On Critical Race Theory explains the centrality of race in American history and politics, and how the often mischaracterized intellectual movement became a political necessity.

Ray draws upon the radical thinking of giants such as Ida B. Wells, W.E.B. Du Bois, and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., to clearly trace the foundations of critical race theory in the Black intellectual traditions of emancipation and the civil rights movement. From these foundations, Ray explores the many facets of our society that critical race theory interrogates, from deeply embedded structural racism to the historical connection between whiteness and property, ownership, and more.

Link to Penguin/Random House:




TrendsWatch 2023 – American Alliance of Museums

“Welcome to TrendsWatch, the Center for the Future of Museums (CFM’s annual forecasting report. This year the report explores how museums can use the profound disruptions of the past three years as opportunities to create a better, more equitable, and resilient future. The text for this report was written by CFM’s director, Elizabeth Merritt, with input and advice from many people inside and outside the museum sector. (See page 1 for a list of people who reviewed and commented on the articles.).”

Link to the website where you download the report for free:




The past and future of cultural diplomacy, Natalia Grincheva

International Journal of Cultural Policy, Routledge- Taylor & Francis, February 2023


This article is based on a comprehensive overview of the evolution of the academic literature on cultural diplomacy since its official inception during the midst of the Cold War, in 1959. It draws on mapping, chronology building, and thematic analysis of all scholarship published on cultural diplomacy in the Scopus database, the largest academic database in the world. The research explores how the discipline has evolved, what geographies and thematic areas it covered in the past, and what is the future of this discipline. These explorations start a conversation on cultural diplomacy as an independent academic discipline that most recently has gained a wider and stronger attention and reached a higher stage of scholarly maturity. This article is evidence that the research on CD is rapidly progressing with time, incorporating new thematic areas for exploration as well as covering wider cultural and political geographies. The research findings suggest further trajectories for the development of cultural diplomacy as an academic enquiry, focusing on different diplomatic channels, modes of operation, structures, actors, meanings, and implications.

Link to this open-source article: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10286632.2023.2183949


Chapter 4 – Planning and the Arts

If the last three years have taught us anything, it is that adaptive and contingency planning are essential. Here’s a report and a workbook that I hope you find useful.  


A Change Management & Deep Equity Primer: The What, Why, How & Nuance

Sheryl Petty, Ed.D., https://www.geofunders.org/

Change is a force that is simultaneously generative, stimulating creativity and innovation, and disruptive, destabilizing or re-ordering existing conditions. Organizations embarking on equity transformation processes often grapple with questions about the work they are engaging in and where they aspire to land as it relates to advancing change. These common questions can present moments of tension or stuckness, for organizations, staff, boards and equity practitioners, whether in identifying the greatest power levers, unaddressed challenges, or navigating fear or misalignment that can impede larger transformation journeys. Through this publication, Sheryl Petty supports systems to unstick and deepen their ability to advance and embody Deep Equity

Download the documents at:




Mixed Metaphor- A Hybrid Approach Toward Liberatory Infrastructure for Arts & Culture Organizations

LEVERAGING A NETWORK FOR EQUITY (LANE), a Program of the National Performance Network (NPN)

This workbook and learning deck are made for people who believe culture is the fulcrum of social change, and who care about co-creating equitable and liberated arts leadership and organizations. These resources share the learning of the artists, culture workers, poets, dreamers, strategists, arts administrators, organizational leaders, organizers, and visionaries of Leveraging a Network for Equity (LANE) who came together for nearly a decade to learn what it takes to create thriving, equitable arts organizations actively working to dismantle systems of oppression and build liberating alternatives.

Link to the free Workbook and Learning Deck

Once on the website, scroll down for the PDFs


Chapter 5 - Organizing: Organization Design and Culture

Text Box 5.2 on page 166 includes several resources you can investigate about organization design and behavior, including Mintzberg’s landmark book Mintzberg on Management. Here’s some information about a recent publication by Henry Mintzberg that synthesizes his long-time research on how organizations structure themselves.


Understanding Organizations . . . Finally! Structuring in Sevens, Henry Mintzberg, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc., Oakland, CA 2023.


The iconic Henry Mintzberg provides a crystal-clear map to the forms and forces that shape all human organizations, synthesizing his fifty years of research.

We live in a world of organizations, from our birth in hospitals until our burial by funeral homes. In between, we are educated, employed, entertained, and exasperated by organizations. We had better understand how these strange beasts really work. But where can we go to find out?

Welcome to Understanding Organizations . . . Finally! For half a century, Mintzberg has been observing organizations, advising them, engaging them, and escaping them. Here he offers a masterful update and revision of his 1983 classic, Structure in Fives.




Managing Organizations in the Creative Economy – Organizational Behaviour for the Cultural Sector, 2nd ed., Paul Saintilan and David Schreiber, Routledge, New York, NY, 2023.


Managing Organizations in the Creative Economy is the first textbook of its kind, introducing organizational behaviour theories and applying them to the creative world. The text is underpinned by the latest research and theoretical insights into creative industries management and organizational behaviour, covering key topics such as structure, culture and the management of change and creativity as well as contemporary issues such as diversity, sustainability, managing stress, wellbeing and self-care, and remote working. The authors bring theory to life through practical examples and cases provided by industry experts, supported by specially created companion videos featuring managerial responses to the cases.

This second edition textbook provides readers with an updated applied theoretical understanding of organizational behaviour that will be of particular benefit to those looking to work in the creative and cultural industries. Students on courses such as arts business, arts management and music business, and even students within the broader study of the entertainment and creative industries, will find this to be a vital read.

Link to ordering the book:



Chapter 6 – Staffing, Boards, and Volunteers

Staffing Topics

Here are three items that can be used when discussing topics in Chapter 6. First up is a link to a recent NLRB action about independent contracts and the Atlanta Opera (See Table 6.1, page 194). Secondly, here are two examples of job postings that can be used in conjunction with Box 6.1 Examples of Job Postings, page 197. Next, TCG recently made its salary survey of its member organizations available. The report includes compensation information about administrative, artistic, tech, guest artists, actors, and production staff positions. Lastly, Advisory Board for the Arts issued a report about how to manage large boards. This information will be helpful as you read Part 2: Boards, Interns, Volunteers, pages 218 to 225.



Expanding Individuals Considered Employees – Atlanta Opera

Venable LLP, June 16, 2023

On Tuesday, June 13, 2023, the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB or the “Board”) issued a decision that effectively increases the number of workers who are considered employees rather than independent contractors under the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA). The decision, The Atlanta Opera, Inc. and Make-Up Artists and Hair Stylists Union, Local 798, IATSE overturns an existing Trump-era standard, and is yet another step by the current NLRB to expand the agency’s influence among workers.

Here’s the link to an article with a pun in its title:




Director of Development– Santa Fe Opera

The Santa Fe Opera Director of Development Director position was advertised in early 2023. This is a key executive job and the job posting reflects that in the level of detail it provides to applicants. There are 16 “Essential Duties and Responsibilities” and 15 “Qualifications” listed along with the expectation of a college degree and five to seven years of experience (see below). The salary range is $155,000 to $170,000 or $12,916 to $14,166 per month. The salary range seems commensurate with the scope of the job, but of course, Santa Fee is an expensive place to live. According to bestplaces.net, the median home price in 2023 is $541,000, and according to livingcost.org, 3-bedroom apartments rent for around $2200 per month. The latter website states that Santa Fe is in the top 18% of the most expensive cities in the world.


Marketing & Communications Coordinator - American Musicological Society

The Marketing & Communications Coordinator is a key member of the staff of the American Musicological Society (AMS) and helps ensure effective marketing, communications, and constituent support for the Society. Reporting to the Executive Director, this role provides substantial opportunity to interact with AMS members and volunteers and to help drive membership and outreach growth by strengthening organizational communications and marketing.

This position was posted in early 2023 with a salary range of $62,000 to $70,000, which translates to a monthly gross of $5166 to $5833. While this would not be considered a “low” salary in most situations, the fact that it’s in New York City presents its own set of challenges since it is the mostly expensive city to live in America. Were it fully remote, it might be more attractive to many applicants. However, the job posting stipulates a “hybrid schedule of 1-2 days per week” in the office, which is in Manhattan. Finding a studio apartment in Manhattan for $3500 per month would be considered a bargain. Lower-cost housing in Brooklyn or the Bronx, but monthly rates are still likely to be $1800 to $2500.



TCG Salary Survey

On pages 204 and 205 in Management and the Arts 6e there is a discussion about compensation and benefits. The link below will give you a great deal more information about compensation in the nonprofit theatre sector. This report can be used as a discussion topic in class and will provide context about the compensation variations in theatre companies.

Finding salary information via job postings has become somewhat easier in the last few years. Theatre Communications Group (TCG) recently shared a longstanding salary survey report that had only been available to its members. This report includes administration artistic, tech, guest artists, actors, and production staff positions. The minimum, maximum, and median weekly salary is indicated for most positions.

For example, minimum hourly wages among non-union personnel in Section D of the report show more than a few positions paying $6, $7, and $8 per hour! For example, there were some people working as Dressers/Wardrobe Crew receiving $5.00 per hour for their efforts, which of course, is below the Federal Minimum wage. However, the average hourly wage for this position was $14.74, and the maximum was $27 per hour which seems more in line with reality. The 164 theatres in this survey had annual budgets that ranged from $90,000 to $58 million.



Large Board Management with Santa Fe Opera

Advisory Board for the Arts, March 2023

This year, Santa Fe Opera posed an interesting question: what is the optimal way to manage a large, geographically dispersed board? In particular, what are the characteristics and board-participation commitments that other organizations employ with such boards? Reaching out to our network, we received responses from 12 organizations with this board makeup. Below we’ll summarize the key findings from this research.


NOTE: There are several other studies created by the Advisory Board for the Arts available on their website.


Chapter 7 – Leading in the Arts

Here are four additional resources you can use along with this chapter. The first two cover the many challenges faced by those in leadership roles in cultural organizations. The other two are journal articles that will allow you to drill down deeper into leadership theory.



Nataki Garrett to Leave Oregon Shakes Amid Emergency Fund Drive

The artistic director’s departure caps a 4-year period of extraordinary promise, crisis, and controversy, while the festival seeks help with its next steps.

By Rob Weinert-Kendt, May 5, 2023, American Theatre, Entrances & Exits

It was in February 2020 that Alys E. Holden, director of production at Oregon Shakespeare Festival, came to the company’s newly appointed artistic director, Nataki Garrett, with “three or four scenarios for me to analyze about what happens if we shut down,” as Garrett recalled in a recent interview. Just one month later, the scenario that won out was the same as at every theatre across the U.S.: All three of the festival’s venues in rural Ashland, Ore., totaling around 2,000 seats among them, were shuttered entirely to stem the spread of COVID-19, just six days into a 10-show season of which just three shows met audiences before cancellation. “Clopening,” a bitter portmanteau borrowed from exploited shift workers, was an apt shorthand for that murderous March at theatres nationwide, and Oregon Shakes was no exception.

Link to the full article:


Is theater’s traditional role of artistic director becoming obsolete?

Lily Janiak January 3, 2023, Updated: January 4, 2023, San Fransico Chronicle Datebook

In early 2022, Raphael Massie was supposed to be settling in to his new role as artistic director of Marin Shakespeare Company. His predecessor, Robert Currier, a self-described “old white guy,” told The Chronicle he was excited to make room for a person of color. Massie, who’s Black, spoke about Shakespeare with both zeal — “The more I learn or discover, the more gets revealed to me. It just keeps on giving to me, and it doesn’t ever run out” — and critical distance. In his Instagram bio, he describes himself as a “Shakespeare interrogator.”

But after just 3½ months, Massie left the job. He declined to go into detail about why, but said, “Ultimately, I didn’t think the situation that I came into was set up in a way that would have allowed me to be successful.”

Link to the full article




Thomas Fischer, University of Geneva and Sim B. Sitkin, Duke University

Academy of Management Annals, 2023, Vol. 17, No. 1, 331–372.


We systematically review eight positive (authentic, charismatic, consideration and initiating structure, empowering, ethical, instrumental, servant, and transformational leader- ship) and two negative leadership styles (abusive supervision and destructive leadership) and identify valence-based conflation as a limitation common to all ten styles. This limitation rests on specifying behaviors as inherently positive or negative and leads to mixing the description of the content of leadership behaviors with the evaluation of their underlying intentions, quality of execution, or behavioral effects. We outline how this conflation leads to amalgamation, construct redundancy, and most problematically, causal indeterminacy, which calls into question the entire evidence base of leadership style research. These weaknesses are not limited to the ten leadership styles but are inherent in the valenced research logic that has been dominant for seventy years. Thus, the common finding that positive leadership styles lead to positive outcomes and negative styles lead to negative outcomes might be an artifact of conflation rather than a reflection of reality. To address these concerns, we suggest distinguishing between intended and displayed leadership styles, as well as their realized effects. We also call for utilizing a configurational approach. These recommended actions would provide a strong foundation for future research on leadership styles.

Link to article: (Your campus may have a subscription to this journal which will allow you to access this article. If not, you can pay a one-time fee to download it.)




Alessia Contu, University of Massachusetts Boston

Academy of Management Review 2023, Vol. 48, No. 1, 149–164.


In this paper I examine the ancient wisdom on how to make good leadership decisions that Antigone offers. Creon, Antigone’s ruler, preconizes the traditionally masculine leadership conduct, with hubristic tyrannical tendencies, that deliver tragic consequences. Antigone schools Creon and the audience, firstly, by identifying the behaviors and circumstances that favor bad and untimely leadership decisions. Then Antigone presents the wisdom of phronesis as the way forward for good and timely leadership decisions. Phronesis is a pragmatic, measured rationality that comprises prudence, and a sensibility to the context, openness to dialogue, and to the other. Phronesis also calls for an open and flexible relation to error, to changing one’s mind. The focus is not merely on the leader but on the relations, their differences, and opportunities, and what everyone involved in the specific circumstances of the decision can offer when listening and learning from one another. Phronesis becomes part of a modus operandi that prefigures collaborative leadership. Collaborative leadership is predicated on the collective and individual flourishing central to the dawn of democratic rule and the dilemmas Antigone examines. This essay shows how today we still need Antigone in deepening our democracy and making better leadership decisions.

Link to article: (Your campus may have a subscription to this journal which will allow you to access this article. If not, you can pay a one-time fee to download it.)



Chapter 8 – Economics and the Arts

Here are three recent news stories that highlight the economic challenges facing arts organizations in the post-pandemic period. The 2023 Otis College Report on the Creative Economy in California encompasses the full range of activities in the sector. This report can be reviewed in conjunction with pages 304 to 311 and Box 8.1, Creative Economy Reports: US. There is also a new book on cultural development and innovation in Europe. 



Oregon Shakespeare Festival says it needs $2.5 million to save its season

Updated: Apr. 13, 2023, 7:48 a.m. - Published: Apr. 11, 2023, 11:05 a.m.

By Lizzy Acker, The Oregonian/OregonLive

The Oregon Shakespeare Festival announced a campaign Tuesday to raise $2.5 million to “save” the season set to begin later this month and said it was suspending its planning for 2024 as it seeks to stabilize its finances.

The festival’s board of directors also said it had relieved artistic director Nataki Garrett of the interim executive director role she took on in January, leaving her to focus on production for the remainder of the season. The board will take on administrative duties directly.



Saving the Symphony: Spokane orchestra looking for more donations as it faces $1 million deficit after pandemic

By Kip Hill, April 27, 2023, The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, Washington

Hundreds of elementary students from far-flung areas of the Inland Northwest brought their recorders to their lips Wednesday morning, awaiting instruction from Kelsey and Marissa Weddle.

Improvise, the singing duo told the rapt pupils at the Martin Woldson Theater at the Fox.

“Feel the beat, and just play free,” they said, followed by a rising crescendo of woodwind notes reverberating off the walls.

This Link Up performance between the Spokane Symphony and schoolchildren is just one of the services offered by a local orchestra that is facing a $1 million annual budget deficit if changes aren’t made in the ledger. Expiring pandemic-related government funds, a scuttling stock market and the increasing cost of doing business have left the 78-year-old arts organization seeking some help.

Link to the full story:



Shocking closure at L.A.’s Mark Taper Forum reflects a crisis at regional theaters nationwide

By Jessica Gelt, Los Angeles Times, June 17, 2023

It was the pause heard ‘round the theater world.

When Center Theatre Group on Thursday announced that it was indefinitely pausing shows at the Mark Taper Forum — the creative beating heart of one of the country’s largest regional companies — a sense of deep sadness and acute anxiety resonated with theater leaders across the country.

Center Theatre Group might be calling this a “pause,” many said, but that word is a euphemism for a closure — what the entire theater ecosystem had to endure when the COVID shutdowns hit in March 2020. The hard lesson learned — during closures that in some cases lasted close to two years — is that audiences won’t quickly return in nearly the numbers needed to make budgets.

Link to the full story:




Otis College Report on the Creative Economy 2023

About the Report (February 2023)

California’s creative economy finds itself in a moment of profound change. The past three years have been a period of reflection and adaptation, which has yielded an important insight: the economic value of the creative sectors extends beyond just the manifest production of artistic and cultural goods or the employment of creative people. Its key function is to inspire, leverage, and amplify innovation (or creativity) across the state. As the creative sectors shifted activity from the physical world into the digital realm, the creative economy is both the driver and a beneficiary of technological advancement.

The focus of this year’s report is viewing the future of the creative economy through an increasingly important lens: gaming technology. The video game industry has experienced explosive growth in recent years, and it is having an impact far beyond the gaming community in transformational ways. Gaming technology is foundational to the development of nearly all sectors, not just the creative ones, prompting both structural and operational shifts throughout the entire economy.

A copy of the report and a video be found at:




The Cultural Sector and Sustainable Economic Development – Innovation and the Creative Economy in European Cities

Biljana Mickov Routledge, New York, NY 2022


The cultural sector plays an important role in sustainable economic development and creates economic activities, opportunities for entrepreneurship and jobs, adding to the attractiveness of cities and contributing to the development of tourism. The Cultural Sector and Sustainable Economic Development: Innovation and the Creative Economy in European Cities offers both a theoretical and practical analysis of the contemporary approach to culture and innovation, with special emphasis on the relationships among culture, innovation and the economy.

Link to more information on the book:



Chapter 9 – Operations, Budgeting, and Finance

Chapter 9 focuses on aspects of risk management, budgeting, and finance. Here are two resources you can use to better operate an arts organization. The Risk Insights Report is a handy tool for assessing potential problems NFP may face and the TCG Theatre Facts 2021 is a look back at the fiscal activity of professional non-profit theatres between October 1, 2021, to September 30, 2021.


2023 Risk Insights: Question Everything

We’ve put together a guide to help nonprofit leaders navigate the challenges and potential of 2023. To succeed, leaders must be real about capacity. So we know that many of you won’t tackle all these issues at once this year. That’s OK. We’ve designed this guide so you can jump in at any issue—once you pass a central point, the one thing we believe all nonprofits must improve on in 2023. We’ve included some “recess” activities along the way: ideas for constructive ways to step away from a thorny issue, regroup, get a new perspective, or de-stress.

Scroll down to this link to download the 23-page report.



Theatre Facts 2021

Theatre operations in 2020 and 2021 were clearly affected by the continuing impacts of the COVID-19 virus. Starting in March 2020, theatres across the country closed their doors as the virus spread. The total loss to the performing arts industry attributable to the pandemic is over $3.2 billion and changing COVID-related behavioral patterns have decreased audience ticket demand by 20-25%. Fluctuating COVID case rates continue to exert a strong effect on ticket demand and will likely keep performing arts organizations in a reactive posture for the foreseeable future.1 It wasn’t until December 2021 that unemployment in the arts sector overall matched that of the national unemployment rate.

Link to report:



Chapter 10 - Marketing and the Arts

The first report below provides a snapshot of subscription sales in a small sample of U.S. arts organizations and the second looks at arts participation in the UK. Both can be used to supplement content in Chapter 10, Market and Marketing Research, pages 406 to 413. Also, if you go back to the Chapter 6 update above, you will find an example of a job posting for a Marketing & Communications Coordinator with a salary range listed to gain more perspective on these types of jobs.



Trends in Audience Behavior – Subscription Sales

JCA Arts Marketing, January 2023

An analysis of the change in subscription sales since 2019

Data for this study was gathered from 28 major organizations* in different regions of the U.S.:

•    12 Music Organizations

•    11 Theatre Companies

•    5 Opera Companies

All organizations in the analysis have fall to spring seasons. Our analysis compares subscription sales for 2022-23 (FY 2023) to past seasons in 2021-22 (FY 2022) and 2018-19 (FY 2019).

*Data was collected between 11/30-12/20/2022.

The report can be downloaded at:




These two resources can be used in addition to the material covered in Chapter 10 starting on page 391.

The Audience Agency in the UK – Spring 2023

Findings from the Spring 2023 wave of our Cultural Participation Monitor look at the compounding pressures facing organizations right now, as arts and culture audiences' already slow return post-pandemic is stalled by cost-of-living concerns.

(NOTE- Links to the report section are contained in the key points summary.)

Key Points

  1. 1/3 still report attending arts and culture less than pre-pandemic, though under 35-year-olds are returning more than others, and are more likely to identify as the 'initiators' of social cultural activity with friends and family.
  2. Panto season pre-sales stand out as being back on track, though this goes against an overall trend towards later booking, with over 40% saying that they now tend to book more last minute than they used to.
  3. More than half of people now consider the risk of day-to-day Covid infection to be minimal, though c. 1/4 still say that concerns about transmission put them off attending arts and culture - albeit far less so than the cost-of-living.
  4. Over 60% say that the cost-of-living is already putting them off attending culture events (more than twice because of Covid concerns), with even higher numbers expecting this to still be the case in 6-24 months' time.
  5. Half of those who previously did so intend to donate less over the next couple of years, but most who have cancelled memberships do intend to restart them, and c.80% of lapsed volunteers expect to return to their activities.
  6. More than 1/3 people say they follow an 'arts and culture' organisation on social media, though report being more inclined to do so out of interest in the broad topic or artform, than in that specific organisation and its events.

Link to report: https://www.theaudienceagency.org/evidence/covid-19-cultural-participation-monitor  When you land on the site, scroll down to “Wave 8 – Spring 2023” to access the report.

P.S. In case you’re not familiar with theatre-going customs in England, here’s a link that will explain the “Panto” mentioned in the Audience Agency Report



Trends in Audience Behavior – Subscription Sales

JCA Arts Marketing, January 2023

We embarked on this study to gain a more thorough understanding of subscriber decline, and—more importantly—to find what clues and insights the data gives us regarding how to address the issue.

Our Study Reviews Four Primary Types of Subscription Models:

  • Fixed Subscription: A traditional subscription package, where the subscriber purchases a fixed set of performances, with seats assigned at the time of purchase. These could be full-season or partial-season subscriptions.
  • Choose Your Own (CYO): A subscriber selects their own set of performances with a combination of dates and seats, but all are chosen at the time of purchase.
  • Ticket Credits: A subscriber purchases a set of credits that can be redeemed for tickets to a performance. They can be redeemed at the time of purchase or at a later date.
  • Pass/Membership: A subscriber/member pays a fixed amount either monthly or yearly, and can attend performances as often as they’d like.


Chapter 11 – Fundraising and Development

Updates for Chapter 11 include the latest data from the Giving USA report, a job posting for a prospect researcher, two journal articles about how organizations can better connect with donors, and new books that were recently published on fundraising.


Giving USA 2023

Here is a summary of a few key data points to update to the Giving USA statistics on pages 452 to 454.

The latest report, which was published June 20, 2023, showed total giving of $499.33 billion in 2022. Fig. 11.2, page 453 in Chapter 11 shows the total giving for 2019 of $471.44, which of course was pre-pandemic. By way of comparison, in 2022 Corporate giving increased to 6% (it was 4% in 2019), Foundation giving was 21% (19% in 2019), and giving by Individuals was 64% (a 5% decline since 2019).

Meanwhile, the contributions by type of recipient organization (See Fig. 11.3 on page 454) in 2022 showed that Arts, Culture & Humanities increased to 5% for a total of $24.67 billion. In 2022 that giving in this category was 5% of the total. The other categories (religion, human services, education, gifts to grantmaking foundations, health, etc.) had a modest increase. The only category that showed a significant decline was giving to individuals. In 2019 the total was $16.22 billion while in 2022 it dropped to $12.98 billion. When factoring in inflation, that made the decline even more dramatic. 

Giving to the Arts, Culture & Humanities from 2018 to 2022

2018: $19.49 billion, an increase of 0.3% from 2017, a 2.1% decrease adjusted for inflation

2019: $21.64 billion, an increase of 12.6% from 2018, a 10.6% increase adjusted for inflation

2020: $19.47 billion, a decrease of 7.5% from 2019, an 8.6% decrease adjusted for inflation

2021: $23.50 billion, an increase of 20.5% from 2020, a 21.8% increase adjusted for inflation

2022: $24.67 billion, an increase of 2.9% from 2021, a 4.7% decrease adjusted for inflation

The early months pandemic in 2020 resulted in a decline in giving, but the total grew dramatically in 2021 and less so in 2022. While inflation impacted giving in 2022, the total giving in this category was estimated to be at an all-time high.

A few other key data points in Giving USA 2023 that are of some concern include the continued decline in the percentage of individuals who give. For example, in 2017 individuals gave 70% of the total, while in 2022 that number had declined to 64%. Individual giving as a share of Disposable Personal Income (DPI) fell to a new low of 1.7%. Lastly, the 2023 summary report doesn’t include anything about how Donor Advised Funds (DAF) are impacting the giving total. It is safe to say that individual donors are taking advantage of the benefit of taking a tax deduction upfront and then they spread their gifts among a variety of organizations.

For more information go to: https://store.givingusa.org/products/2022-infographic?variant=42999974363360


Job Posting

I recently noticed this posting by the Detroit Opera (DO) and thought it would be a useful addition to Box 11.1 on page 443. By way of background, the Detroit Opera’s 2020 Form 990 lists its total revenue at $9.1 million, of which $6.3 million came from contributions and grants. With 70% of its revenue from contributions and grants, hiring an effective prospect researcher would help ensure DO’s fiscal health. Unfortunately, DO does not indicate salary ranges on its website.

You will see it is a very comprehensive description of the responsibilities and qualifications. One observation I have about the “Required Qualifications” section is that it lists 18 items which to my mind could be seen by an applicant as very daunting expectations to meet. By placing all these items “required” in the posting, DO is making it harder for them to hire someone. What happens, for example, if an applicant only meets 12 or 13 of the requirements? Is DO expecting that someone will really meet all 18 of the items they listed? When constructing a job posting, it is important to consider what is really required to do the job vs what is desired. Once you list more than 8 to 10 requirements you begin to make it harder for your organization to find someone to hire.

Prospect Researcher

Position Summary

Detroit Opera (DO) is a historic institution acting as a bastion of arts and culture within the Metro Detroit area. Using an extensive knowledge of research, databases, and philanthropy, the PR would support the organization by researching and identifying new prospects and fund-raising opportunities for the development team.  The PR’s eye for details, analytical mind, and developed time-management skills allow them to continue DO’s tradition of excellence. The PR’s duties in maintaining, updating, and growing the development team’s prospect databases are integral in sustaining an impactful future of DO.

For information about other job openings at DO go to https://detroitopera.org/auditions-employment/


Journal Articles

Here are two open-access Journal of Philanthropy and Marketing research articles that can be used to enhance topics covered in Chapter 11. The first covers research about using gender-targeted wording in donor acquisition appeals. The second article focuses on how to better match legacy giving with donor programs and preferences. By the way, there are often articles that are open-access in this journal. If you find one that isn’t, check to see if your campus library has a subscription to this journal.


What do you value? Examining gendered responses to appeal letters

Ruth K. Hansen, Laura A. Dula, Journal of Philanthropy and Marketing, October 17, 2022.


This study builds on previous inductive analysis of fundraising professionals' choices in writing acquisition letters. Fundraisers often write in a way that aligns with one of two personal values, either foregrounding aspects of self-transcendent Universalism values (an appreciation for community and the welfare of all people) or of conservation Security values (those of personal safety and stability for close others). Previous research also indicates that while women and men have different donation styles, targeted motivating language has yet to be explored. Using a national sample, this research tests public response to letters written for a fictional children's charity using content aligned with each option separately, and combined, compared to a control version. Using an experimental dictator game, Universalism values are found to be negatively related to giving across the board as compared to the valueless treatment. We find no statistically significant improvement in donor responses to acquisition appeals that choose to highlight either Universalism or Security values between men and women, although men were marginally less responsive to Universal, self-transcendent values language. The discussion attempts to make sense of these results and the possible complications of running a donor acquisition campaign in the time of COVID-19.

Link to article: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/nvsm.1776 v


A novel approach to legacy donations with long-term benefits supported by numerical illustrations

Daniel Solow, Natalie Webb, Robin Symes, Journal of Philanthropy and Marketing, June 4, 2023.


Philanthropic donors face challenges in matching the causes to which they donate, the time horizon—and thus impact—of their donations, and the charitable vehicles they choose for making contributions. Wealthier donors may elect to create their own foundations and customize their charitable support. Less wealthy donors have limited choices: they may contribute to a nonprofit's current operations or to existing nonprofit endowments. We present a novel approach for making charitable donations, blending aspects of each of these strategies. Our approach has potential long-term financial benefits, allows donors to control their charitable donations in a convenient and easy-to-implement manner, can be established through an existing nonprofit organization, expands opportunities for more donors because it requires a smaller corpus contribution with lower management costs than creating a foundation, provides tax savings in the United States and other countries (e.g., the UK, Canada, and Australia) comparable to other planned giving vehicles, and may be implemented during one's lifetime using donor advised funds or as part of a legacy plan through the donor's estate documents, which is when the long-term benefits accrue.

Link to the article: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/nvsm.1803



Advising Philanthropists – Principles and Practice

Emma Beeston and Beth Breeze, Directory of Social Change (DSC), Liverpool, England, L3 9HG 2023.

Who is this book for?

Essential for those new to or considering a career in philanthropy advising, including those studying non-profit and philanthropic action, this book will be equally valuable to established philanthropy advisors seeking to deepen their knowledge and improve their practice. It will also be enlightening for those who provide broader wealth advice but don’t yet see themselves as philanthropy advisors. Fundraisers and non-profit leaders will find it beneficial to better understand this developing profession.



The Fundraising Reader

Edited by Beth Breeze, Donna Day Lafferty and Pamala Wiepking, Routledge, London and New York, 2023.


The Fundraising Reader draws together essential literature establishing a one-stop body of knowledge that explains what fundraising is, and covers key concepts, principles and debates. The book shines a light on the experience of being a fundraiser and answers an urgent need to engage with the complexities of a facet of the non-profit sector that is often neglected or not properly understood. This Reader is for those who seek to further develop their own understanding of fundraising, and it provides an invaluable resource for academic courses and professional training.




Fundraising Management – Analysis, Planning and Practice, 4th ed.,

Adrian Sargeant, Jayne George, Routledge, New York, NY, 2022

This new edition of Fundraising Management builds on the successful previous editions by including an integrated theoretical framework to help fundraisers develop a critical and reflective approach to their practice. Also new to this edition are how-tos on budgeting and making a strong and compelling case for investment, two vital core skills, as well as comprehensive coverage of digital fundraising and fundraising through social media. The new edition also accounts for recent changes in the fundraising environment, notably in the UK, the introduction of a new fundraising regulator and new thinking on professional ethics.



Chapter 12 – Managing and the Arts

Finally, here are two items connected to Chapter 12. The first is a book that will reframe how you think about learning. Many of the techniques in Willingham’s book can also be used in staff and board meetings to help enhance learning and the change processes in arts organizations.  


I’m always cautious when approaching “self-help” books, but here is one I think is worth your attention. If you are interested in research-based techniques for improving your learning and teaching, you should make this part of your summer reading regime.

Outsmart Your Brain: Why Learning is Hard and How You Can Make It Easy

Daniel T. Willingham, Gallery Books, New York, NY, 2023.

In this revolutionary, comprehensive, and accessible guide on how the brain learns, discover how to study more efficiently and effectively, shrug away exam stress, and most of all, enjoy learning.

When we study, we tend to focus on the tasks we can most easily control—such as highlighting and rereading—but these practices only give the illusion of mastery. As Dan Willingham, professor of psychology and bestselling author, explains, familiarity is not the same as comprehension.

Perfect for teachers and students of all ages, Outsmart Your Brain provides real-world practices and the latest research on how to train your brain for better learning. Each chapter provides clear and specific strategies while also explaining why traditional study processes do not work. Grounded in scientifically backed practical advice, this is the ultimate guide to improving grades and better understanding the power of our own brains.

Link to book:



Appendix 12.1 Charting an Arts Management Career

A recent report from the SMU DataArts team is a resource you can use in your research on where you might start your career or enhance your career by looking beyond your current horizon.



The Arts Vibrancy Index Report & Map

Identifying the 40 most arts-vibrant communities across the U.S. based on data-informed indices

SMU DataArts recognizes that arts and cultural organizations are inextricably tied to their communities and combines data from nonprofit arts and cultural organizations with data for the communities in which they reside to identify factors that affect the health and sustainability of arts organizations across the nation.

The report provides insight into which counties across the United States have the highest scores on three key measures: Arts Providers, Arts Dollars, and Government Support, which can fluctuate year to year. Additionally, our interactive map provides scores for every county across the United States, allowing readers to explore and compare the differences with the latest available data.

Scores for Every County in the U.S.

What factors make up a community's arts vibrancy, and which cities possess them? We provide scores for every county across the nation on measures of Arts Dollars, Arts Providers, Government Support, Socio-economic and Other Leisure characteristics. Explore and compare how these community characteristics drive performance as well as your community's relative strength on each characteristic.

Link to report:


Link to County-by-County Map



Be on the lookout for Update #5 which will be published in December 2023.

In the meantime, please feel free to email me at mgtandthearts@gmail.com. Thanks.

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