6e UPDATE #5 – WINTER 2024

Thank you for visiting the 6e Updates page. This latest update includes 26 pages of new resources for Management and the Arts, 6e. There are reports on dance companies, audience attendance and participation, and race and gender diversity in the arts. Links to dozens of news stories about arts management and leadership have been added, and there are links to several scholarly journals so you can take a deeper dive into subjects. Lastly, you'll find info on new books on arts management and cultural economics. I hope students, faculty, and practitioners will find these new resources timely and of value.

Bill Byrnes



In the Acknowledgements, page xxvi, the name Joshua Stavros was misspelled.

Chapter 9 – Page 378, Balance Sheet, the abbreviation should be NA (Net Assets), not NE.


Chapter 1 – Arts Management Overview

Here are two additional resources on the creative industries and the overall benefits the arts provide to people and communities.

Chapter 1 includes a section on various classification schemes underpinning the creative industries (pp. 8-13). The report highlighted below, which includes three parts - sectors, impact areas, and target groups – provides context about the impact of the creative industries in Europe. While the U.S. is not included in this study, this framework that has been created could be a model for a similar analysis of and support for research in the arts in North and South America, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia.

Measuring the Social Dimension of Culture Handbook

MESOC (Measuring the Social Dimension of Culture) is a European project focused on the measurement of the societal value and impacts of cultural policies and practices.


“Measuring the Social Dimension of Culture: Handbook” aims to provide accessible information, based on the findings of MESOC research, for all those interested in understanding, enabling, and assessing the social impact of culture.

Understanding the societal value of cultural activities and being able to measure and explain it is particularly relevant for those engaged in designing and implementing cultural projects on the ground, as well as for decision-makers and public and private managers who provide funding and establish priorities, and for researchers engaged in research and evaluation.

Link to MESOC Report



Chapter 1 noted the benefits of the arts and the creative industries (pp. 6-11 and Fig 1.2, p. 7). This 2022 open access journal article provides access to 82 different studies that have been done about the benefits of visual art, dance, theater, and music and also includes studies that combine artistic disciplines.


Editorial: The Psychological and Physiological Benefits of the Arts

Frontiers in Psychology, March 8, 2022, Sec. Health Psychology

Volume 13 - 2022 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.840089


With an international editorial team of researchers specializing in the psychology of the arts as well as the creative arts therapies, this Research Topic has attracted publications from around the world on different aspects of the arts, including visual arts, music, dance, and theater alongside studies on the creative arts therapies including music therapy, art therapy, drama therapy, dance movement therapy, and integrated approaches. We maintained this interdisciplinary focus by prioritizing studies that reflect collaborations across countries and between university research partners and community organizations. We are also proud to showcase studies by doctoral students presented jointly with their supervisory teams thus advancing academic and research discourse with direct implications for clinical practice and policy.


The 82 articles included in this Research Topic affirm the value of the arts as a cost-effective global resource for keeping us well, living fuller lives, and meeting major challenges facing health and social care, such as aging, implicit bias, chronic medical conditions, and mental health. And as promised, they also offer valuable evidence and insight into the psychological, physiological, and social benefits of the arts.



Chapter 2 – Arts Managers and the Practice of Arts Management

Chapter 2 contains a profile of arts managers (pp.44-49). Here are three resources that provide insights about dance companies and two perspectives on what it is like to be in the management trenches.


The Dance Data Project® (DDP) issued a new report in November profiling 75 U.S. dance companies, and an artistic director shared the stressors in her job. In December 2023, a report that profiled dance festivals was added. [Also see the Chapter 7 update for a DDP® report on dance artistic and executive directors salaries.]

2023 Largest 75 U.S. Contemporary and Modern Dance Companies

Dance Data Project® announces Part II of our second report analyzing the largest U.S. contemporary and modern dance companies. For the first time, this report examines the financial scope of the Largest 75 U.S. contemporary and modern dance companies. This report ranks the companies within two categories: the Largest 50 (#1-50) and the Additional 25 (#51-75), thereby providing a comprehensive overview of the contemporary and modern dance industry

Link: https://ddp-wordpress.storage.googleapis.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/11/06101555/2023-Modern-Contemporary-Ranking-1.pdf

2023 U.S. Dance Festivals Report

DDP findings show that women choreographed 50% of the works programmed at the dance festivals collected in 2023, the highest percentage of female-choreographed pieces yet. Of the 1007 works, 958 were part of a mixed-bill program and 45 were full-length works.


Also, see the Chapter 6 update for the latest DDP® report on compensation in ballet companies.


Two Perspectives on Arts Management

Nataki Garrett: ‘You kind of have to get out before you burn out’

By Holly Dillemuth, May 2023, Ashland.news 

It cannot be said definitively why Oregon Shakespeare Festival Nataki Garrett announced her resignation on Friday, but what is known is that she has been under intense pressure since she took the helm as the sixth artistic director in the organization’s history in 2019.




How to get ahead in arts management (a UK perspective)

Karen Pimbley, Annabel Atkins, artsprofessional.co.uk, 4, February 28, 2023

With arts management training, it’s important to equip people entering the workplace not only with knowledge and skills, but also relevant experience to help them get ahead in the industry. 

Having work experience is more likely to lead to successful graduate employment so we ensure all arts management learning at Royal Welsh College of Music and Drama (RWCMD) is delivered by current industry professionals. And, crucially, two-thirds of our training comprises work-based learning which is delivered within partner organisations.



Chapter 3 – Adaptive Arts Organizations

The updates for this chapter include links to stories in the news that relate to several of the external environments discussed in Chapter 3. As we begin 2024, all of the environments will likely have some impact on arts and cultural organizations.

In addition, for those who are interested in taking a deeper dive into the topics covered in Chapter 3, I have two journal articles for you to explore. The first relates to the role homophily plays in creating exclusiveness in the arts, and the second examines the ways racism has and continues to shape Black Americans’ creative and expressive lives.


News Stories

The Hidden Costs of Working in the Art World

Maya Pontone, Hyperallergic.com, November 7, 2023

A new survey by ArtTable finds widespread reports of low pay, debt, and work-related expenses in art jobs, especially affecting women.

Link: https://hyperallergic.com/855272/the-hidden-costs-of-working-in-the-art-world-arttable/

$30 Entrance Fees: Are America’s Art Museums Only for the Wealthy?

Zachary Small, NYTimes, Aug. 1, 2023, Updated Aug. 18, 2023

Their buildings have expanded and expenses have surged, even as attendance slowed. Art lovers will bear the cost: The Guggenheim is the latest to increase its price of admission to $30 — the new normal.

Link: https://www.nytimes.com/2023/08/01/arts/design/museums-raise-admission-fees-guggenheim.html

Artificial Intelligence Can Change The Game For Artists And Organizations  

Brett Ashley Crawford, Ph.D., July 6, 2023, Arts & Technology, Artificial Intelligence, Emerging Technology

The successful future of the arts and arts organizations will include artificial intelligence (AI). Artificial intelligence operates in many spheres. From generative AI, including OpenAI’s ChatGPT, DALLe or VALLe, or OtterAI’s transcription tools to robots cleaning offices to machine learning algorithms.



Surviving in the States: Audience Rejection on the Road with Oklahoma!

Essay by Christopher Bannow, Howlround.com, April 2023

“Director Daniel Fish cracked open this beloved musical and dug into its virtues with a vengeance. He flipped its perceived narrative into a young woman’s unfair and forced choice between a cocky man child and an emotionally underdeveloped outsider.”





These two journal articles examine the impact of various external environments have on the arts, artists, cultural organizations, and communities. The first article explores the concept of homophily, and the second focuses on the resilience of Black Americans trying to engage in cultural networks that were often less than welcoming.

If you are not familiar with the term homophily, it is defined as “the tendency to form strong social connections with people who share one’s defining characteristics, as age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, personal beliefs, etc., e.g., political homophily on social media.”[1] It’s a concept drawn from the social sciences and describes our tendency to develop networks that are popularly summarized by the statement “birds of a feather flock together.” As arts organizations attempt to respond to calls to be more inclusive, being aware of the impact of homophily in creating barriers to access needs to be taken into account.

[1] Source: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/homophily

[NOTE: Unfortunately, neither of these articles is Open Access. However, check with your campus or local library to see if they have access to these journals.]

What Does Homophily Do?  A Review of the Consequences of Homophily

Gokhan Ertug, Julie Brennecke, Balazs Kovacs, and Tengjian Zou, The Academy of Management Annals, 2023, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp 38-69


Understanding the consequences of homophily, which is among the most widely observed social phenomena, is important, with implications for management theory and practice. Therefore, we review management research on the consequences of homophily.

Link to the abstract and article:


Casualties of exclusionary cultural policies: exploring the paradox of Black American cultural engagement 

Antonio C. Cuyler, Journal for Cultural Research, Volume 27, 2023 - Issue 1


This article used Critical Race Theory (CRT) and interpretive policy analysis to identify the ways in which racism has and continues to shape Black Americans' creative and expressive lives. I conclude this article by making the case for a research agenda that comprehensively investigates Black Americans’ cultural engagement as well as other historically and continuously oppressed groups.

Link to the full abstract and the article:


Chapter 4 – Planning and the Arts

Chapter 4 stresses the importance of collaboration when planning in organizational settings and Box 4.1 focuses on planning and EDI (see pages 111-112). The links below are to resources that demonstrate how plans can produce positive outcomes and why it is important to understand how to communicate and implement diversity and inclusion plans effectively.  

The first link is to a report by the Institute for Composer Diversity demonstrates how plans made by orchestras to include more works featuring composers of color and women have started making an impact on what audiences hear. The second link examines a successful EDI planning outcome at the Pacific Northwest Ballet Company in Seattle, Washington.

Next up is a link is to an interview with one of the authors of “Happy Talk: Is Common Diversity Rhetoric Effective Diversity Rhetoric?” which shows how approaches used by leaders to effect DEI change can be undercut by communication strategies not linked to organization values. The link to the first article is open access, but the second link is not. However, your university or local library may have a subscription to this journal, which should make it possible to access the full text.

2023 Orchestra Repertoire Report

Dr. Rob Deemer, Dr. Cory Meals, with assistance from P.J. Corron, Humay Gasimzadeh, and Jessica Sist

Institute for Composer Diversity, State University of New York at Fredonia

Our inaugural Orchestra Repertoire Report in 2022 highlighted the significant transformation in programming within professional orchestras nationwide. Works by historically marginalized and excluded composers – women, non-binary individuals, and composers of color – grew from just 4.5% of total programming in 2015-2016 to 22.5% in 2021-2022 – a change of 400%. This growth reveals the strides made by orchestras nationwide in their embrace of diversity and inclusion, responding to calls from artists and audiences alike.




Pacific Northwest Ballet’s new guard brings diversity center stage

Seattle’s largest dance company is at a turning point with a fall roster that’s younger and 50 percent BIPOC. Marcie Sillman, Crosscut Weekly, September 13, 2023

Like many American ballet companies, PNB has been working hard in recent years to diversify its staff, both onstage and behind the scenes. Now, as it prepares to open its 51st season (starting Sept. 22), company dancers are more racially diverse than at any other point in PNB’s history. And they’re performing an ever-expanding repertoire of new works by an array of choreographers.





How organizations can improve worker buy-in on diversity efforts

How does the way organizations talk about their diversity commitments affect workers’ willingness to buy into those efforts? The authors found that the most common framing leaders use is also the one least likely to get workers on boardand that the most effective framing is one most leaders shy away from. We recently spoke with co-author Lisa Leslie, a professor of management and organizations at NYU’s Stern School of Business. [Emphasis added.]





Happy Talk: Is Common Diversity Rhetoric Effective Diversity Rhetoric?

Lisa Michelle Leslie, Elinor Flynn, Olivia Foster-Gimbel, and Colleen Flaherty Manchester

Academy of Management Proceedings, Vol. 21 #1


Despite increased emphasis on diversity, diversity initiatives often evoke negative employee reactions, which undermine their effectiveness. We investigate leaders’ diversity rhetoric—defined as how leaders talk about diversity—as a tool for increasing employees’ diversity support. We identify three diversity rhetoric types: value-in-diversity (diversity creates value), challenge-in-diversity (diversity creates challenges), and contingent diversity (diversity creates value if the challenges are overcome). Drawing from theory on communication norms, we predict value rhetoric is most common. Collectively, these studies uncover a descriptive-prescriptive paradox—the most common diversity rhetoric is not the most effective—and suggest leaders can increase diversity support by changing the way they talk about diversity.



Chapter 5 – Organization Design and Culture

Chapter 5 explores ways organizations are structured and how the culture of arts organizations varies among arts forms. Here are some resources that focus on different structures and ways of organizing and managing arts organizations.

First up is a link to Aubrey Bergauer’s blog and information about her new book, which offers her take on revising organizational structures. Her approach contains some of the elements of the matrix organization shown in Chapter 5, Fig. 5.9, p. 174 in the 6th edition. Another new book is highlighted which is focused on the subject of co-leader structures in arts organizations.

Lastly, I came across this scholarly paper about the impact of “emotional contagion” in organizations. The authors of the study note that “Emotional contagion is important to our understanding of organizational behavior because it may be a key explanatory mechanism of how collective emotion forms through both conscious and unconscious emotional social influence.” Emotional contagion plays a role in the evolution and dynamics underpinning organizational culture (see pp. 178-181).    


Designing A Modern Performing Arts Organization

Aubrey Bergauer, Medium.com, April 28, 2022

For a long time, arts organizations large and small alike have relied on an organizational structure built around one goal: producing great art. That makes sense because for a long time, that structure worked just fine — we filled our houses, paid our artists, and raised the money necessary to support that work.

However, with the dual pandemics of Covid-19 and racial and social injustice, coupled with changes in the nonprofit landscape like the need for digital transformation and more innovative business models, the old org chart isn’t effectively serving our work anymore.





Run It Like a Business: Strategies for Arts Organizations to Increase Audiences, Remain Relevant, and Multiply Money--Without Losing the Art

Abrey Bergauer, BenBella Books, Available February, 2024

Just because arts organizations are non-profits doesn’t mean they shouldn’t make money; it means the money they make goes back to fund the mission—whether that’s music, visual arts, theatre, dance, or one of many other mediums that enrich our lives.

The for-profit world knows how to achieve success across customer engagement, user experience, company culture, the subscription economy, technology and media, new revenue streams, and brand relevance. Run It Like a Business provides a powerful, proven framework to help all arts organizations revitalize their economic engines and ultimately serve the arts and its patrons.

This new book will be available at BenBella Books, Amazon and other booksellers.

Co-Leadership in the Arts and Culture - Sharing Values and Vision

By Wendy Reid, Hilde Fjellvær, Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2023.

Excerpt from Summary

This book is about co-leadership: A leadership practice and structure often found in arts organizations that consist of two or three executives who bridge the art and business divide at the top.

Many practitioners recognize this phenomenon but the research on this topic is limited and dispersed. This book assembles a coherent overview and presents new insights of the field. While co-leadership is well institutionalized in the West, it is also criticized for management’s constraint of artistic autonomy and for its pluralism that dilutes leadership clarity. However, co-leadership also personifies the strategic objectives of art, audiences, organization, and community, by addressing plural logics – navigating the demands of artistic vision and organizational stability. It is an integrating solution. The authors investigate its specifics in the arts, including global practice and its interdisciplinary nature. Data includes the voices of co-leaders, artists, staff, and board members from arts organizations in Canada and Norway.

Link to Routledge and Taylor and Francis:




Emotional contagion in organizational life

Sigal G. Barsade, Constantinos G.V. Coutifaris, and Julianna Pillemer

Research in Organizational Behavior, Volume 38, 2018, Pages 137-151.


Leveraging the wealth of research insights generated over the past 25 years, we develop a model of emotional contagion in organizational life. We begin by defining emotional contagion, reviewing ways to assess this phenomenon, and discussing individual differences that influence susceptibility to emotional contagion. We then explore the key role of emotional contagion in organizational life across a wide range of domains, including (1) team processes and outcomes, (2) leadership, (3) employee work attitudes, (4) decision-making, and (5) customer attitudes. Across each of these domains, we present a body of organizational behavior research that finds evidence of the influence of emotional contagion on a variety of attitudinal, cognitive, and behavioral/performance outcomes as well as identify the key boundary conditions of the emotional contagion phenomenon.

Link to article:


[NOTE: This article is NOT Open Access. Check with your campus or local library to see if they have access to this journal.]

Chapter 6 – Staffing, Board, and Volunteers

Here are three news articles on human resource management topics covered in Chapter 6. I have also included a report from the League of American Orchestras on EDI initiatives in the music world and a checklist to help improve hiring and retaining employees with disabilities. Lastly, I included the latest comprehensive report for the Dance Data Project (DDP®) detailing compensation across a range of dance companies. Lastly, there is a link to an article about symphony orchestra boards and governance.



Stark Gender Imbalance at U.S. Opera Companies Extends Beyond Podiums

Marc Tracy, NYTimes, Oct. 16, 2023, Updated Oct. 17, 2023

“Observers have long decried the lack of opportunities given to female conductors and composers at leading opera companies. A recent study found that women have been dramatically underrepresented in other crucial creative roles as well.”

Link: https://www.nytimes.com/2023/10/16/arts/music/gender-imbalance-at-us-opera-companies.html?

Why do US museum workers want to quit? (Sept. 2023)

Employees in the sector increasingly find their jobs exhausting and unfulfilling—but how can they avoid burnout at work?

Link: https://www.theartnewspaper.com/2023/09/15/why-do-us-museum-workers-want-to-quit

Museums Moving Forward (MMF) 2023

Welcome to MMF's 2023 Report on Workplace Equity and Organizational Culture in US Art Museums. Some highlights include: “82% of museum workers surveyed believe they are doing meaningful work, they are more dissatisfied than US workers overall,” and “74% of workers cannot always pay their basic living expenses with their museum compensation alone.”

Link: https://museumsmovingforward.com/


Arts Organizations and EDI Initiatives

Racial/Ethnic and Gender Diversity in the Orchestra Field in 2023

A Report by the League of American Orchestras

With this new report, our intentions are to support orchestras in their equity, diversity, and inclusion (EDI) work, and to provide an evidence-based foundation for field-wide efforts to accelerate progress towards an equitable future. While quantifying representation is only one way of measuring progress in EDI work, it is nevertheless indispensable to the process of decision-making.

Link to PDF: https://americanorchestras.org/wp-content/uploads/2023/06/Racial-Ethnic-and-Gender-Diversity-in-the-Orchestra-Field-in-2023.pdf


Hiring Practices & Compensation

Here is a resource on hiring and retaining employees with disabilities that can be used in conjunction with Chapter 6 in the section devoted to staffing (pp. 188-219).

Disability Access and Inclusion Checklist

Developed as a self-assessment tool for applicants of Lever for Change’s 100&Change competition, this checklist is available for any organization that would like to add a disability rights lens to its life-changing projects and programs.


Link to checklist

Dance Data Project ® - 2023 Artistic and Executive Compensation Report

December 29, 2023

Report Excerpts

This is DDP’s most comprehensive report to date and provides an overview of artistic and executive director compensation, year-over-year changes in compensation, and changes in compensation in relation to expenditures. Previously, artistic and executive compensation were examined as part of the Artistic and Executive Leadership Report and the Artistic Director/ Executive Director Compensation Data Byte. DDP has combined these two studies into one, in-depth report to provide a comprehensive overview of compensation within the ballet sector.

Dance Data Projects® - Largest 50 – Ballet Companies

Average Artistic Directors Compensation in FY 2022

Based on the available FY 2022 data, DDP was able to source compensation information for 44 artistic directors within the Largest 50. The average compensation of these 44 artistic directors was $225,127 (range: $60,815-$658,158) in FY 2022. There were 10 female artistic directors recorded with an average compensation of $194,698 (range: $83,797-$465,276), and 34 men earning an average compensation of $234,076 (range $60,815-$658,158). On average, women earned 83 cents per every dollar earned by men.

Link to the full report:


Boards of Directors

The League of American Orchestras publishes the Symphony magazine for its members and shares information with the music community about trends and practices in the field. Here’s an article focused on issues related to board governance.

Forward Thinking: Rethinking Orchestra Governance (Oct 2023)

Simon Woods, Symphony – The League of American Orchestras


Organizationally, it’s almost impossible to imagine an orchestra finding real success or growth without an effective board. Great boards have deep commitment to the organization’s mission, provide effective fiduciary oversight, support employees, give generously, understand the boundary between governance and management, and lead the tireless advocacy in the community necessary for successful community engagement and fundraising.

Link: https://symphony.org/features/forward-thinking-rethinking-orchestra-governance/?

Chapter 7 – Leading in the Arts

Updates for Chapter 7 include a news story about the leadership transition at the Oregon Shakespeare Festival, a report about leaders of major dance companies, and a presentation on how to be a more impactful leader when seeking to achieve an organization’s DEI goals.


There have been a great many leadership transitions in arts organizations in 2023. One of the more high visibility changes occurred at the Oregon Shakespeare Festival. (Also see Nataki Garrett article in the Chapter 2 update: ‘You kind of have to get out before you burn out.’

Shakespeare Festival hires new artistic director with OSF roots

By Holly Dillemuth, Ashland.news, July 2023

Oregon Shakespeare Festival announced Thursday afternoon it has selected former OSF assistant artistic director Tim Bond as artistic director for the festival, effective Sept. 1.

Evren Odcikin, associate artistic director and director of artistic programming, will serve as interim artistic director until Sept. 15, providing an overlap transition period when Bond arrives. Bond and Odcikin will collaborate on planning for the 2024 season.

Bond succeeds Nataki Garrett, whose resignation, announced May 5, was effective May 31. Garrett, OSF’s sixth artistic director, joined the company in 2019.

Bond served as an associate artistic director at OSF for 11 seasons, 1996 to 2007, and was the first person of color in that role for OSF. He was mentored under former artistic director Libby Appel while at OSF. Bond has deep roots in southern Oregon and raised his family in Ashland.

Link to article: https://ashland.news/extended-cut-incoming-osf-artistic-director-aims-to-build-bridges-strengthen-bonds/


The latest report from the DDP shows that gender imbalances in leadership roles in dance companies have changed over the last five years. (Also see Chapter 2, pp. 44-47 for information on the changes in the gender balance in arts management as a field.)

The Largest Ballet & Classically Based Companies Leadership Report

October 2023 – Dance Data Project ®, Elizabeth Yntema - President and Founder

Report Summary

This is Dance Data Project ®(DDP)’s fifth annual study examining the gender distribution of leadership at ballet and classically based companies in the United States. This is DDP’s second iteration of the report examining the Largest 150 companies. This report is the most comprehensive to date and represents a significant expansion in the depth of our analysis examining more critical leadership positions than ever before. Previously, DDP’s Leadership Report only examined the gender distribution of Artistic and Executive Directors, and Associate/Assistant Artistic Directors; this year’s report has expanded to include Heads of Schools, Heads of Second Companies, and Rehearsal Directors. The gender distribution of resident choreographers were previously examined in the Global Resident Choreographers 2023 Data Byte.

Link to report:




The comprehensive slide deck created by ProInspire is an excellent tool for arts managers and leaders to adopt as a guide as they seek to advance their organization’s equity work. Their leadership model offers a clear framework for using the elements of self, people, organizations, and systems to help reshape an organization. These resources can be used in conjunction with Part 5 of Chapter 7, “Leading Inclusively and Ethically (pp. 268- 274).

Self to Systems: Leading for Race Equity Impact

This Leadership Model is a tool to support individuals and organizations with core commitments, corresponding practices, and reflection questions that can create and sustain racially equitable experiences and outcomes within the social sector. It is based on ProInspire’s collective experience, research, and perspectives, and informed by our thought partners, advisors, and community. We will continue an iterative process to expand the model in a responsive and supportive way as our learning evolves.

Link to slide deck:

Chapter 8 – Economics and the Arts

The topic of the impact of the arts covered in Chapter 8 (See pp. 304 – 309) included an overview of several economic studies, including the Arts & Economic Prosperity 5 (AEP5) report, which was issued by Americans for the Arts in 2019. The sixth iteration of the report published in October 2023 includes data and analysis for the first time about the social impact of the arts. There is also a FAQ document which will help you understand methodologies used in creating AEP6. As other reports about the impact of COVID on the creative industries become available I will include them in future updates of the sixth edition of Management and the Arts.


Arts & Economic Prosperity 6 (AEP6) Report

Arts & Economic Prosperity 6 (AEP6) is an economic and social impact study of the nation’s nonprofit arts and culture industry. By every measure, the results are impressive. Nationally, the sector generated $151.7 billion of economic activity in 2022—$73.3 billion in spending by arts and culture organizations and an additional $78.4 billion in event-related expenditures by their audiences. What was the impact of this economic activity? It supported 2.6 million jobs, provided $101 billion in personal income to residents, and generated $29.1 billion in tax revenue to local, state, and federal governments.

Link to AEP6 Reports and data tables (scroll down the page for links to AEP6 PDF)


NOTE: See the updates for Chapter 10 below for information about the impact of COVID on arts attendance and participation. The NEA published two reports on October 2023 which also highlight many of the impact issues surrounding the pandemic.



Chapter 8 introduces students to macro and microeconomic theory and core concepts. For faculty and students seeking a more in-depth understanding of arts and economics here is a book I think you will find invaluable.

The Economics of Art and Culture, 3rd edition

Karol J. Borowiecka, Charles M. Gray, and James Heilbrun, Cambridge Univ. Press, Oct. 2023


Spanning the economics of the fine arts, performing arts, and public policy, this updated classic is the go-to resource for navigating today's creative industries. Building on real-world data, engaging case studies, and cutting-edge research, it prepares students for careers in the cultural, creative, and public sectors. By avoiding mathematical treatments and explaining theories with examples, this book develops theoretical concepts from scratch, making it accessible to readers with no background in economics. [Source-Amazon.com website summary]


Amazon - https://www.amazon.com/Economics-Art-Culture-Karol-Borowiecki/dp/0521690420/

Cambridge Univ. Press - https://www.cambridge.org/highereducation/books/the-economics-of-art-and-culture/D3D2DAB8E6DB70747B905A6CB8B7F499#overview


Here is another resource for faculty members teaching arts and economics. I came across this book when researching teaching arts economics. There are 38 short chapters covering a wide range of topics, including public support, fundraising, labor markets, consumer behavior, copyright, and topics in the economics of cultural and creative industries. This book is part of the Elgar Guides to Teaching series.

Teaching Cultural Economics

Edited by Trine Bille, Anna Mignosa, and Ruth Towse, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2021.

The breadth of material provided within these pages is invaluable to teachers who wish to offer courses in cultural economics and are seeking guidance for developing a new course, as well as for teachers who are already teaching cultural economics and are seeking inspiration for new case studies. The material can also be used by teachers of other courses who wish to teach cultural economics as part of their curriculum.



Chapter 9 – Control: Operations, Budgeting, and Finance

In 2023 there were an endless number of news stories, blog posts, and podcasts on the topic of AI and its potential impact on businesses, education, government, and of course, the arts. The Carnegie Mellon University Arts Management & Technology Lab included a recent post about the impact of AI in five areas within arts organizations: Machine Learning, Chatbots, Automation, Marketing and fundraising, and Accessibility. In addition, SMU DataArts recently posted an article on evaluating AI and program evaluation. Chapter 9 also includes a brief overview of how management information and technology systems are an integral part of the operation of an arts organization. 


Artificial Intelligence Can Change The Game For Artists And Organizations

Brett Ashley Crawford, Ph.D., July 6, 2023, Arts Management & Technology Laboratory

The successful future of the arts and arts organizations will include artificial intelligence (AI). Artificial intelligence operates in many spheres.  From generative AI, including OpenAI’s ChatGPT, DALLe or VALLe, or OtterAI’s transcription tools to robots cleaning offices to machine learning algorithms. Artificial intelligence is and will change business operations for the better. Organizations of all sizes that are leveraging it find efficiencies in operation and more meaningful connections to a growing audience.




Evaluative AI: Rooting Out Bias in AI to Support Robust Program Evaluation

Posted Dec 14, 2023, SMU DataArts

While much of its global impact is still to be understood, has world perception shifted with the recent release of generative artificial intelligence (AI) tools? From image creation with Midjourney and Stable Diffusion to text generation with ChatGPT, industries across every sector are exploring how these technologies can increase productivity and, arguably, unleash creativity in daily operations. Need a first draft of a fundraising letter? Go to chat.openai.com. Need an image with specific content and can’t find a stock image? Go to midjourney.com.

The power of AI can go even further for our sector. At SMU DataArts, we are exploring the use of AI for program evaluation, asking, “What can we learn about our decision-making processes from these technologies?” By focusing on evaluation, we can start to probe potential biases in how we make decisions. Every evaluation then also helps us improve our AI models to make even better predictions going forward. So, what does evaluative AI look like?




The art of data: Empowering art institutions with data and analytics

by Zina Cole, Ben Mathews, Richard Steele, and Loïc Tallon, McKinsey & Company

Art institutions improve people’s lives and livelihoods in diverse ways. They enrich individuals by fostering education, health, creativity, and empathy. They also act as community catalysts by encouraging inclusion, contributing to tourism, improving quality of life, and growing economies. But many art organizations struggle to measure this impact. That difficulty makes it harder for them both to articulate their performance to boards and other stakeholders and to evolve their operating models strategically so that they can navigate current and future challenges.

NOTE: To research the use of data and analytics in art institutions, we partnered with the Brooklyn Museum; Chicago Symphony Orchestra Association, Cleveland Orchestra and Musical Arts Association, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, National Gallery of Art and National Symphony Orchestra.




Chapter 9 includes an overview of financial management standards and practices (pp. 370-386). I also suggest you click on the link below to other financial management topics on the ArtsHacker website to do a deeper dive into the topic area.

Common Points of Confusion Between the Accounting and Development Teams

By Eric Joseph Rubio, Artshacker, July 11, 2023

As our organizations grow, the number of donations and the number of financial transactions grow along with it. On top of that, the accounting function, if it hasn’t already, likely will move from cash basis to the more complex accrual basis. This growth leads to the need for specialization among staff and often a separation of the gift processing and bookkeeping functions. It is very appropriate and desirable for internal control purposes to have separate people handling the bookkeeping aspects of a donation from the donor stewardship aspects.


Chapter 10 – Marketing and the Arts

Chapter 10 includes a section on marketing research and development featuring reports from the NEA's Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA) and the Wallace Foundation (pp. 309-311). In October, the NEA released Arts Participation Patterns in 2022 (the last survey was in 2017), which included new survey areas such as creative coding and design for software or games. The NEA also released a report about the various ways people engaged with arts organizations online during Covid-19.

I also added a link to the Americans for the Arts YouTube videos on marketing and a link to a research article on analyzing museum attendance patterns.



Arts Participation Patterns in 2022

Produced by the NEA Office of Research and Analysis, Sunil Iyengar, Director, October 2023

The preface of the report notes that

. . . while attendance rates fell since 2017 (the prior survey period) for virtually every type of arts activity named, attendance rates grew for other music, dance, and theater activities not listed among the specific types included in the survey.

What were those other performing art types? They may have included any number of genres and activities for which survey questions were absent: rock or pop, rap or hip-hop, folk or country, or music from other countries and cultural traditions, in addition to comedy/improv, circus acts, or magic shows. In 2022, 21 percent of adults attended these “other” kinds of music, dance, and theater events—up from 15 percent five years earlier.

Here are a few highlights from the report:

1. More than half (52 percent) of all adults created and/or performed art in the 2022 survey period. This is slightly larger than the share who attended an arts event that year (see Figure 1).

2. The overall rate of arts attendance dropped nearly six percentage points between 2017 and 2022. Yet attendance rose for performing arts activities not specifically listed on the survey (see Figures 2-4).

3. In 2022, open-air facilities (e.g., parks, pavilions, amphitheaters) were among the most popular sites of in-person arts attendance. In addition, social media and peer-to-peer communications appear the most effective means for generating enthusiasm about arts events (see Figures 5-6).

4. For many art forms, the share of adults personally creating and/or performing has either grown modestly or held flat since the most recent survey period. This analysis includes data from the NEA’s 2020 Arts Basic Survey (ABS), which, like the SPPA, was conducted in partnership with the U.S. Census Bureau (see Figure 7).



Online Audiences for Arts Programming: A Survey of Virtual Participation Amid Covid-19


This research brief can be read as a companion to Arts Participation Patterns in 2022. That report is based on the Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA), which the NEA conducts regularly with the U.S. Census Bureau. Unlike Arts Participation Patterns in 2022, the present brief discusses data from the 2022 General Social Survey (GSS), administered by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago. The two national surveys have some essential differences, but both instruments afford an understanding of whether and how different demographic subgroups participated in the arts during the COVID-19 pandemic.




Americans for the Arts Marketing Resource

Americans for the Arts has an online learning platform called ArtsU Essential Arts Marketing Webinars that has a wide array of topics you can explore. Some of the recent topics covered include Website Optimization Without A Redesign, Comprehensive Marketing Planning Workshop, Build an Inclusive Audience with Radical Readability, and many more.

Link to YouTube for ArtsU Workshops:



It can be difficult, if not impossible, to engage in research while working in marketing and organizational development in an arts and culture organization (pp. 406-409). Here’s an article that offers research findings that could be helpful to staff in the education, marketing, or development areas in museums or other cultural organizations.

Disparities in museum attendance among youth over two decades: an empirical analysis of who attends and how often

Laura M. Crispi &Molly I. Beck, Published online: Mar. 20, 2023, Arts Education Policy Review

In prior research, museum attendance has been shown to positively impact educational outcomes for children, teens, and adults, yet little has been documented about who is attending and how often. Our findings show that attendance rates among youth typically range from 50-70%, but that there are significant differences by socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, gender, and location. These findings indicate that policies to improve access to museums for students, particularly low income youth and those in rural areas, may be beneficial for promoting wider cultural, artistic, and hands-on STEAM opportunities.



[NOTE: This article is NOT Open Access. Check with your campus or local library to see if they have access to this journal.]

Chapter 11 Fundraising and Development

Here are links to recent postings about fundraising, along with an Op-Ed about unrestricted funding. In addition, there is a link to a recent SMU Data Arts Report about the impact of local arts agency funding grants. The article by Ben Watson demonstrates how the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA) makes effective use of AI. There are also two open-access journal articles about fundraising.  


From ‘Data Lake’ to ‘Doom Loop,’ the Philanthropy Buzzwords We’ll Be Hearing in 2024

This year’s list highlights the nonprofit world’s tension between navigating A.I. and other new technology while keeping the focus on human needs.

Lucy Bernholz, The Chronicle of Philanthropy, 12/15/2023.




AI and the Future of Arts Fundraising

Ben Wilson, Arts Professional UK, June 2023

“Amid recent concerns about the safety of artificial intelligence, Ben Wilson looks at its potential as a resource for fundraising, and the ethical questions it throws up.”

There is no doubt that technology continues to embed itself in the fabric of the arts sector - whether in online ticketing systems, social media or streaming to a mass audience.

But it is the emergence of the latest technology – artificial intelligence (AI) – which some say is likely to lead to the biggest shift in our working practices since the industrial revolution.

With every revolution comes trepidation. Looking at AI through the eyes of an arts fundraiser, we question whether this is the future of fundraising, or merely a tool to support us on our journey to maximise engagement in the arts? It certainly needs further debate.

The full article can be found at:



Op-Ed – ArtsNet News

Philanthropy in Almost Every Sector Is Moving Toward Unrestricted Funding—Except in the Arts. Why Is It So Hard to Trust Artists?

Ted Russell, Inside Philanthropy, artsnet news, April 2023

The arts strategy director of the Kenneth Rainin Foundation argues why we must move toward trust-based philanthropy.

Both in the arts and beyond, money is fundamentally based on trust. Our economic system functions due to society’s trust in it, enabling cooperation and exchange. However, if we trust in money itself, why is it that in arts philanthropy, trust in artists is largely absent? The restricted nature of many forms of grantmaking—such as project-based support—imply that we lack confidence in an artist’s ability to themselves determine how to allocate funds in support of their practice.




Study Finds Local Arts Agencies are Catalysts for Art Vibrancy

Those who work for local arts agencies witness the community impact of their work. Organizations and artists who are direct beneficiaries of local arts agency support leverage the funding to fuel their creative activity. Yet politicians and citizens who live in arts-vibrant communities may not connect the dots between their local arts agency and the direct value it adds. We decided to turn to data to empirically explore the question: Do local arts agencies contribute to their communities’ arts vibrancy? 

Download the report:




Emotional appeals effectiveness in enhancing charity digital advertisements

Murooj Yousef, Timo Dietrich, Sharyn Rundle-Thiele, and Saleem Alhabash, Journal of Philanthropy and Marketing, July 2022. https://doi.org/10.1002/nvsm.1763


Advertising appeals effectiveness has long been a point of debate in the literature. This study empirically tests hope and shame online advertisements aimed at enhancing donation quality to charities. Following a sequential research design the current research carries out two studies to tests the effect of hope and shame appeal messages on social media on behavioral engagement measures, guided by the multi-actor engagement framework.

This article is open access and is at this link:


Understanding audience reception and interpretation of development communications: A research framework proposition

Edward Ademolu, Journal of Philanthropy and Marketing, September 2022. https://doi.org/10.1002/nvsm.1769


While studies on visual communications of international development are small, scattered but well established, much of this comprises of representational analyses. However, studying development representations alone limits critical investigation of the complex contradictions and intersectionality that constitute their reception. Audience reception studies in this context are scarce, largely commissioned charity/NGO reports, with limited contributions to discussions. Nevertheless, this article examines these inquiries, evaluating their contributions, limitations and absences.

This article is open access and is at this link:



The next update of the sixth edition of Management and the Arts will be posted to this website in late summer of 2024. Thanks.

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